Relationship between accommodation and convergence.
AMA Arch Ophthalmol. Jun;47(6) Relationship between accommodation and convergence. MORGAN MW Jr. PMID: ; [Indexed for. Communication accommodation theory (CAT) is a theory of communication developed by Sometimes when individuals try to engage in convergence they can also end up over-accommodating, .. They sought to "demonstrate how the core concepts and relationships invoked by accommodation theory are available for. Aug 1, of the accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio are simple Inaccuracies in the gradient stimulus AC/A arose because the accommodation often to establish the characteristics of the relationship between stimulus to The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust over the last 10 years.
The power of the spherical lenses is gradually increased to find out whether accommodative-convergence response is the same to each unit of accommodative stimulus. To start with we interposed both convex and concave spherical lenses for changing the accommodative stimulus but with convex lenses most of the persons experienced difficulty in relaxing accommodation proportionately.
It was also not possible to use concave lenses higher than 4.
Communication accommodation theory - Wikipedia
With any method it is of utmost importance to ensure that the person sees the target very clearly so that correct accommodation is exerted. With the help of Maddox wing and Maddox rod. As the distance is kept fixed the factor of proximal convergence is kept constant which, therefore, does not introduce any error in the results. Nature of this test is such that the factor of fusional convergence also does not come into the picture.
The procedure was carried out at a distance of 33 cm with the help of Maddox wing and at a distance of 1 metre with the help of Maddox rod. For each distance the first reading in prism dioptres was taken without any interposition of lenses and subsequent readings were taken after the interposition of - 1. With the help of Synoptophore. The patient was asked to wear his correcting glasses if any. Slide for measuring angle kappa was placed before one eye.
A black vertical line was presented to the other eye. The patient was asked to bisect the zero by the black vertical line. Subjective angle was then noted in prism dioptres. The test was then repeated with the introduction of concave spherical lenses, - 1. If two strangers meet, they may have a random small talk and simply say goodbye. Then, neither of them is likely to evaluate the conversation since they have little chance of meeting again. The importance of language and behavior is illustrated in the third assumption since they are indicators of social status and group belongings.
When two people who speak different languages try to have a conversation, the language used is more likely to be the one used by the higher status person. That idea of "salient social membership"  negotiation is illustrated well during an interview as the interviewee usually makes all efforts to identify with the interviewer by accommodating the way that is spoken and behaved to raise the chance of getting the job. The last assumption puts emphasis on social appropriateness and norms.
Here, norms are defined as " expectations of behaviors that individuals feel should or should not occur in a conversation". Most of the time, the accommodation made according to those norms are perceived socially appropriate. For instance, when a young person talks to the seniors in the family, he should avoid using jargons among his generation to show respect and to communicate more smoothly. Convergence and divergence[ edit ] Convergence[ edit ] Convergence refers to the process through which an individual shifts speech patterns in interaction so that they more closely resemble the speech patterns of speech partners.
In fact, people can both converge at some levels and diverge through others at the same time. Attraction likability, charisma, credibilityalso triggers convergence. As Turner and West note, "When communicators are attracted to others they will converge in their conversations.
To achieve a "desired social distance" Pardo,people use language to converge more towards a conversational partner they are attracted to.
Many people tend to use converge with one another because they want to feel a sense of fitting in and experience social approval to the people around them.
Thus, when one individual shifts speech and non-verbal behaviors in order to assimilate to the other it can result in a more favorable appraisal of him, that is: For this reason it could be said that convergence reflects "an individual's desire for social approval"  from his interlocutor, and that the greater the individual's need for social approval, the more likely he or she is to converge.
Besides attraction, other factors that "influence the intensity of this" need of approval and hence the level of convergence "include the probability of future interactions, the social status of the addressee, and interpersonal variability for need of social approval". This is another factor that motivates people to converge.
Divergence[ edit ] Divergence is a linguistic strategy whereby a member of a speech community accentuates the linguistic differences between himself and his interlocutor. Divergence is commonly used to establish dominance or power in an interaction.Convergence & Divergence: Eye Exercise 1- Trinity Eye Care
For example, if a recent college graduate becomes a professor, they might be teaching students who are around the same age as them. Therefore, it is important for the professor to communicate in a way that the students are aware the professor has more authority than them.
Another case where there is a need for divergence are when professionals are with clients. In a study, doctors and patients discussed musculoskeletal disorders and it was observed that there were miscommunications that occurred because the participants chose to converge during the communication rather than to accentuate their position differences.
Components[ edit ] Further research conducted by Gallois et al. They are categorized into four main components: Sociohistorical context[ edit ] The sociohistorical context refers to ways that past interactions between groups the communicators belong to influence the communication behaviors of the communicators.
It includes "the relations between the groups having contact and the social norms regarding contact".
Eye exercises for best vision
Socio-historical factors that influence communicators include political or historical relations between nations, and different religious or ideological views of the two groups participating in the conversation. Accommodative orientation[ edit ] Accommodative orientation refers to the communicator's " It is shaped by five interrelated aspects: Positively rated conversations will most likely lead to further communication between the interlocutors and other members of their respective groups.
They referred to this as "the applied perspective" that showed accommodation theory as a vital part of day-to-day activity as opposed to solely being a theoretical construct. They sought to "demonstrate how the core concepts and relationships invoked by accommodation theory are available for addressing altogether pragmatic concerns". One of these "pragmatic concerns" included understanding the relational issues that present themselves in the medical and clinical fields, such as the relational "alternatives, development, difficulties, and outcomes" that affected the patients' contentment with their medical interactions—and whether or not, through these interactions, they agreed with and implemented said health care regimens.
Another of these situations involved the potential options in a legal arena. The way that the judges, plaintiffs, and defendants accommodated themselves to both the situation and the jury could manipulate the jury's acceptance or rejection of the defendant, and could, thus, control the outcome of the case. Communication accommodation theory was also found to have a place in media.
In regards to radio broadcasting, the alliance of the audience with the broadcaster played an important part in both the ratings that the shows would receive and whether the show progressed or was cancelled. In the area of jobs and employment, accommodation theory was believed to influence the satisfaction one has with his or her job and the productivity that that person possesses in said job through convergence with or divergence from the co-workers and their work environment.
Accommodation theory also possessed practical applications in the development of learning a second language. This was seen when the student's education of and proficiency in said language was either assisted or hindered by accommodative measures.
Giles, Coupland, and Coupland also addressed the part that accommodation theory plays in a situation they called language switching, when bilingual individuals must decide which language they should speak when they are in an organizational environment with other bilingual individuals. This can be an incredibly important choice to make, especially in a business setting, because an incorrect judgment in this area of communication could unwittingly promote negative reactions between the two or more parties involved.
In addition, accommodation theory was strongly intertwined with the way an immigrant accepts and is accepted by their host country. An optometrist screened each participant to ensure normal binocularity. Each subject's heterophoria was within two prism diopters of orthophoria as measured objectively via the eye-tracker and confirmed with the alternating cover test.
Two subjects were slight esophores 0. Apparatus, eye-tracking and general procedures Each trial began with 5 minutes of dark adaptation where the participants were instructed to relax their eyes. Each participant completed 18 SV experimental trials each three at each stimulus amplitude and six PV trials on separate days.
Each eye's visual stimulus subtended 2. PV was elicited from horizontal disparities created dichoptically. Phasic vergence responses were defined by the initial reflexive motor response above left. Dichoptic disparity presentation clamps the accommodative demand.
Communication accommodation theory
SV was measured as the rate and amplitude of heterophoria change sampled every 15 s during 3 min of disparity viewing. Heterophoria was measured by extinguishing the right stimulus to simulate occlusion, above right reproduced with permission from Erkelens, I. Figure 2 PV trials: View Original Download Slide Dichoptic stimuli and test distance Objects that physically shift in depth along the midline produce an equal congruent change in proximity, disparity, and blur.
Isolating disparity vergence mechanisms for study requires controlling the blur and proximal stimuli. This can be achieved dichoptically, using a haploscope Figure 2where both accommodation and proximity are held constant while disparity vergence is varied.
In contrast, symmetric disparities, created dichoptically, have typically been used to study PV. This variation is likely due to the difficulty found in eliciting saccade-free divergence responses to larger uncrossed disparities Hung et al.
Because the main goal of the current study was to examine the interaction between PV and SV responses, all stimuli began from an initially cue-congruent fixation position of 2. PV and SV responses were then generated by creating a symmetric, noncongruent change in disparity only.
These conditions were designed to ensure that each system's responses were generated using an identical type of disparity stimuli. A single testing distance of 40 cm was selected for this study to provide optimal conditions to elicit purely divergence responses. Previous work has demonstrated a starting position bias for divergence, with larger and faster responses being elicited from closer testing distances up to 40 cm or 2.
Therefore, differences between phasic convergence and divergence responses would be expected to increase as the testing distance increases. This information further supports the assumption that the fastest and most optimal divergence response would occur when the initial fixation distance was nearer to the observer, resulting in less symptomology when presented with uncrossed disparity. Accordingly, a test distance of 40 cm was selected, as any asymmetries between convergence and divergence are expected to increase if the same procedures were performed at greater distances.