The DNA of Memes: The Underlying Structure of Ideas
At the time, it was well known that there were four bases of this molecule: Adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). But we could. Thymine and uracil are pyrimidine bases found in only DNA or RNA, respectively. Notice the angle of the sugar and phosphate groups in relation to the planar. But if uracil were already present in DNA, paired to adenine, the repair system would be forced to somehow Me when I see a good meme.
What is true about the relationship of Adenine and Thymine?
Is there an underlying and universal code? How is it structured? What are mental models, memes, ideas, and schemas?
They are the product of human cognition or thought. And the underlying code to human thought is, like DNA, composed of four elements: When thinking, we make distinctions and we recognize systems, relationships, and patterns. Also like DNA, the four elements of thinking are composed of elemental pairs. To recognize a system one must see both the whole and its parts.
Relationships consist of both an action and a reaction if things are interrelated they act upon each other.
Finally, perspectives consist of a point from which one looks and a view that which one sees. These four patterns of human thought exist in dynamic, simultaneous relationship to each other rather than working in isolation. We cannot perceive a system, for example, without making a distinction among its parts and their relationship to each other and seeing them from the perspective of the whole to which they belong. With cognitive structures memes, ideas, schemas as with DNA, we can learn much by understanding the underlying structure.
Pairs of nitrogenous bases are set in the same plane, and interact with each other via hydrogen bonding.
- DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
- The DNA of Memes: The Underlying Structure of Ideas
These pairs are often referred to as base pairs, abbreviated 'bp. Oxygen and nitrogen are electronegative atoms found in nitrogenous bases.
They are represented in models by the color conventions: Electronegative O and N atoms with free lone pairs are potential hydrogen bond acceptors.
Hydrogen atoms attached to very electronegative atoms like O and N have strong partial positive charge and are potential hydrogen bond donors. The dotted line in the image below represents the non-covalent attractive force between a hydrogen bond donor H atom with little 'ownership' of its valence electrons and a hydrogen bond acceptor electronegative atom with at least one lone pair of electrons.
Many of the oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen atoms in the nitrogenous bases are very effective hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, as illustrated in the image below.
Hydrogen bond donors are only those H atoms bound to an electronegative atom such as N or O. Hydrogen bond acceptors are electronegative atoms with at least one lone pair of electrons.
Also notice that potential hydrogen bond donors and acceptors close to the sugar R group are ignored in the image above. This is because those parts of the nitrogenous base close to the sugar-phosphate backbone will be unavailable for hydrogen bonding with the other base in the pair.
What is true about the relationship of Adenine and Thymine? - lifeder English
Let's examine a single guanine residue to identify potential hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. Or, if I may make an analogy to the case at hand, the information in DNA is like a recipe in one of our poor victim's cookbooks. For instance, reading a specific sequence of DNA tells one cell how to make hemoglobin protein to carry oxygen molecules throughout the body. On the other hand, another cell might read a different recipe, which tells it how to make insulin protein to control blood sugar levels.
Oh, and 'reading', or transcribing, DNA is really an intriguing process. Pyrimidines and Purines Miss Crimson: You were telling us about the nitrogenous bases. Cytosine bonds with guanine and adenine bonds with thymine Professor Pear: The bases can be categorized into two different groups. The single-ring nitrogenous bases, thymine and cytosine, are called pyrimidines, and the double-ring bases, adenine and guanine, are called purines. Miss Crimson has a puzzled look.Structure of Cytosine ,Guanine, Adenine,Thymine
I guess you might wonder how I can remember that, but it's really quite simple. And, by process of elimination, that means cytosine and thymine have to be pyrimidines.