Pakistan Armed Forces - Wikipedia
Military diplomacy has not figured significantly in India-Pakistan relations with ample reasons. Secondly, the Pakistan army has launched proxy war through its. The foreign minister said Thursday that "nobody should expect restraint" from Pakistan if India targets its nuclear installations. India's air force chief said earlier . Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number .. In the war, the Indian Army invaded East Pakistan from three sides, while the Indian Navy used the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant (R11) to impose a.
Although many Indians termed this appeasement, Nehru signed a pact with Liaquat Ali Khan that pledged both nations to the protection of minorities and creation of minority commissions. Khan and Nehru also signed a trade agreement, and committed to resolving bilateral conflicts through peaceful means. Steadily, hundreds of thousands of Hindus returned to East Pakistan, but the thaw in relations did not last long, primarily owing to the Kashmir conflict.
Afghanistan—India relations and Afghanistan—Pakistan relations Afghanistan and Pakistan have had their own historic rivalry over their border, the Durand Linewhich numerous Afghan governments have refused to recognize as the border. This has led to strong tensions between the two countries and even military confrontationsresulting in Pakistan as victorious. Pakistan has long accused Afghanistan of harboring Baloch separatist rebels and attempting to sponsor separatist tendencies amongst its Pashtun and Baloch populations, going as far back as the s.
It has been believed that Pakistan during the s, then under Zulfikar Ali Bhuttoin retaliation began supporting Islamist factions in Afghanistan.
The later Soviet intervention in Afghanistan to prevent further escalation and eventual Islamist takeover of the country proved disastrous afterwards. The United States and its allies feared direct Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and began aiding Pakistan's support for the Afghan Mujaheddin, in hopes of crippling the Soviet Union. The Soviet-Afghan war turned out to be a stalemate with heavy casualties on all sides and costly for the Soviets.
Under international agreement, the Soviets withdrew. But various Afghan factions fought one another and their external supporters, including the Soviet Union, Iran, Pakistan and others disagreed on which should be in power.
Timeline: India-Pakistan relations | News | Al Jazeera
Continued rival proxy support led to the civil warin which Pakistan supported in the Talibanseeking to secure its interests in Afghanistan and providing strategic support, while India and Afghanistan's other neighbors backed the Northern Alliance. After the Taliban defeated the Northern Alliance in much of Afghanistan in the Afghan Civil Warthe Taliban regime continued to be supported by Pakistan — one of the three countries to do so — before the 11 September attacks.
India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. India established its links with the Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government, with the United Nations.
India's relations with AfghanistanPakistan's neighbor, and its increasing presence there has irked Pakistan. The Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in KabulAfghanistan on 7 July at 8: Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action".
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relationsthe Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmirincluding the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed. Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmirwhich is cited as further proof by the Indian government. Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India.
A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists. It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the Indian Parliament in December The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered from them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity.
On 13 Julyarmed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring many more.
Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by an unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar.
The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr.
A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber. Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideenclaimed responsibility for the attack.
A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists. No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured.
It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades".
The civilian-military balance: Why institutional relations in India and Pakistan are different
India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations.
The plane was hijacked on 24 December approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan. After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan. Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight.
The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir. The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army.
The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot.
The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan. The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots. Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts.
Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces. One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident.
This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in The military buildup was initiated by India responding to a Indian Parliament attack and the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly attack. At least 68 people were killed, mostly Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians. The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national.
This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets.
They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators "must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan". India and weapons of mass destructionPakistan and weapons of mass destructionand nuclear race India has a long history of development of nuclear weapons.
Israelis also praised the performance of PAF pilots. He is a formidable person and I am glad that he is Pakistani and not Egyptian. The next day, Jordanian tanks attacked the headquarters of Palestinian organisations in Amman. Apart from military advisers, no Pakistani ground forces participated in this war. Many PAF officers as well Army personnel who were serving in Khamis Mushayt training the Saudi Air Force the closest airbase to the battlefieldtook active part in this battle in which the enemy was ultimately driven back.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Main articles: However talks on sharing power failed  and President Yahya Khan declared martial law. They agreed upon a coalition government, with Bhutto as president and Mujibur as prime minister, and put political pressure on Khan's military government. Pressured by the military, Khan postponed the inaugural session, and ordered the arrests of Mujibur and Bhutto.
Faced with popular unrest and revolt in East-Pakistanthe army and navy attempted to impose order. The navy and army crackdown and brutalities during Operation Searchlight and Operation Barisal and the continued killings throughout the later months resulted in further resentment among the East Pakistanis. With India assisting and funding the Mukti Bahiniwar broke out between the separatist supporters in Bangladesh and Pakistan Indo-Pakistani War of During the conflict, the co-ordination between the armed forces of Pakistan were ineffective and unsupported.
The army, navy, marines and air force were not consulted in major decisions, and each force led their own independent operations without notifying the higher command. To release the pressure from East Pakistan the Pakistan Army opened new front on the western sector when a 2,strong Pakistani force attacked the Indian outpost at Longewala held by Indian soldiers of 23 Punjab regiment. The attack was backed by a tank regiment but without air support. The battle was decisively won by the Indian army with the help of the Indian Air Force, and was an example of poor co-ordination by Pakistan.
Recovery from the War[ edit ] The military government collapsed as a result of the war, and control of the country was handed over to the Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. He also decommissioned the Pakistan Marines as a unit of Pakistan Navy. Instead, Chiefs of Staff were appointed in the three branches and Bhutto appointed all 4 star officers as the Chief of Staff in the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Because the co-ordination between the armed forces were unsupported and ineffective, inBhutto also created the office of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee for maintaining the co-ordination between the armed forces. Under Bhutto, the education systemforeign policy, and science policy was rapidly changed. The funding of science was exponentially increased, with classified projects at Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission and Kahuta Research Laboratories.
Bhutto also funded the classified military science and engineering projects entrusted and led by Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali Akbar of the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers. The US lifted its arms embargo in and once again became a major source for military hardware, but by then Pakistan had become heavily dependent on China as an arms supplier. Heavy spending on defence re-energized the Army, which had sunk to its lowest morale following the debacle of the war.
The high defence expenditure took money from other development projects such as education, health care and housing. Baloch nationalist uprisings[ edit ] See also: Baloch nationalism The Baloch rebellion of the s was the most-threatening civil disorder to Pakistan since Bangladesh 's secession.
The Pakistan Armed Forces wanted to establish military garrisons in Balochistan Provincewhich at that time was quite lawless and run by tribal justice. The ethnic Balochis saw this as a violation of their territorial rights.
Emboldened by the stand taken by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman inthe Baloch and Pashtun nationalists had also demanded their "provincial rights" from then-Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in exchange for a consensual approval of the Pakistan Constitution of Tensions erupted and an armed resistance began to take place.
Surveying the political instability, Bhutto's central government sacked two provincial governments within six months, arrested the two chief ministers, two governors and forty-four MNAs and MPAs, obtained an order from the Supreme Court banning the NAP and charged them all with high treasonto be tried by a specially constituted Hyderabad Tribunal of handpicked judges. In time, the Baloch nationalist insurgency erupted and sucked the armed forces into the province, pitting the Baloch tribal middle classes against Islamabad.
The sporadic fighting between the insurgency and the army started in with the largest confrontation taking place in September when around 15, Balochs fought the Pakistani Army, Navy and the Air Force.
Following the successful recovery of ammunition in the Iraqi embassy, shipped by both Iraq and Soviet Union for the Baluchistan resistance, Naval Intelligence launched an investigation and cited that arms were smuggled from the coastal areas of Balochistan.
The Navy acted immediately, and entered the conflict. Vice-Admiral Patrick Simpson, commander of Southern Naval Command, began to launch a series of operations under a naval blockade. The Iranian militarywhich feared a spread of the greater Baloch resistance in Iran, aided Pakistan's military in brutally putting down the insurrection. The army had suffered 25 fatalities and around casualties in the fight while the rebels lost 5, people as of Although major fighting had broken down, ideological schisms caused splinter groups to form and steadily gain momentum.
Despite the overthrow of the Bhutto government in by General Zia-ul-HaqueChief of Army Staff, calls for secession and widespread civil disobedience remained.