How Do Barnacles Attach to Whales? | Scienceline
Although some barnacles are parasites, most are filter feeders. Filter-feeding barnacles are the type that engage in symbiotic relationships with whales. Barnacles regularly colonize the skin of filter-feeding whales, and they often The barnacle-whale relationship is generally considered to be. WHALE Barnacles can be specific to species. The Blue Whale barnacles and the barnacles that live on the Sperm Whale are different. The Humpback Whale.
- Symbiotic Sea Life
- Facts About Whale Parasites
- Whale barnacle
There are more than 1, species of barnacles inhabiting brackish and saltwater environments worldwide. Although some barnacles are parasites, most are filter feeders.
Filter-feeding barnacles are the type that engage in symbiotic relationships with whales. In biological terms, symbiosis is broadly defined as a close, extended relationship between two or more members of different species that benefits at least one member.
There are three types of symbiosis. In mutualism, both species benefit from the relationship. In parasitism, only one species benefits from the relationship and causes significant harm to the other.
Commensalism, in which only one species benefits without causing significant harm to the other, is the type of symbiosis between barnacles and whales.
Barnacles | Match My Whale
Cementing the Relationship Barnacles begin their lives as free-swimming larvae, progressing through six larval stages. When they reach the last, or cyprid, stage, they settle onto the skin of a whale, where they complete their metamorphosis into juvenile barnacles.
The juveniles -- tiny creatures resembling shrimp -- secrete cement that hardens into the hard, calcareous plates that surround them throughout their entire lives. As the cement plates meld together, the whale's skin is pulled into the spaces between the plates, permanently fusing the barnacles to the whale. A Whale of a Ride For the entirety of the barnacles' lives they'll exist as diminutive hitchhikers on the backs and bellies of whales.
They derive two basic benefits from this commensalistic relationship. Typically barnacles don't cause harm to the whale unless there is a high concentration around the whale's blowhole, preventing it from breathing. The most common problem with barnacles is when a barnacle dies and falls off or is scraped off. It causes scaring to the whales skin that take years to heal if it heals at all.
They are considered an amphipod crustacean. Whale lice have flat bodies with hooks at the tip of their legs. Many times these parasites can be found hidden within folds in the skin, wounds, and among barnacles, another type of parasite.
There are several species of whale lice. Cyamus scammoni is considered the largest and most common to be found on a whale.
They differ from other species of whale lice because they have curly gills on their underside, whereas the other species have straight gills.
How Do Barnacles Attach to Whales?
They feed off of the surface of a whale with a diet of flaking skin typically around wounds and barnacles. These parasites seem to be more helpful than other parasites because they clear away dead skin. Whale lice spend their entire life cycle on the body of whales. They can be transferred from whale to whale by touch, but they never free float or swim through the water to their next host.
Female whale louse are generally only a half an inch, but male louse can grow to over an inch long. Another interesting fact about whale lice is that young whale lice grow inside a pouch-like structure under a female whale louse until they are ready to crawl out on their own.
Lung Worms are a type of round worm that affects the lungs of marine mammals. Lung worms can cause several complications including pneumonia. Heavy infestations can cause blockage to the airways along with inflammation that could create abscesses and eventually death if untreated. Lung worms are typically less than seven centimeters long and are white with a thread-like appearance.
These worms can even survive in the lung of a dead whale. They are much smaller than those in a live host. Infestations are generally causes by consuming fish or squid that are already infected. Most whales in captivity are fed frozen fish to aid in prevention of lung worms. According to the Merck Veterinary Manualan infestation of lung worms tend to be asymptomatic, meaning the whale rarely shows any clinical signs. However, in some cases the lasting damage of treatment may be worse.
Some cetaceans have had neurological damage and even sudden death. Tapeworms A tapeworm is a long parasitic worm that absorbed nutrients through its skin from the digestive tract.
The longest tapeworm came from a whale and measured at one hundred and twenty feet. The tapeworm will hook itself into the wall of the intestine with its teeth. They can cause a whale to become malnourished, but as long as enough nutrients are absorbed for the whale and the parasite there generally aren't complications. Click thumbnail to view full-size Types of flukes Flukes Toothed whales are the most susceptible to the parasite Nasitrema sp.
These parasites sometimes travel to the brain causing severe damage.