Question: . What is the relationship between borneol and isoborneol? - ESSAY WALLET
BORNEOL is a white colored lump-solid with a sharp camphor-like odor. Burns readily. Slightly denser than water and insoluble in water. Used to make. the presence of excess methanol. Draw and label the major product isoborneol and the minor product borneol (4pts). What is the stereochemistry at the new. Generally, there are two isomers of borneol: borneol and isoborneol, . To study the structure–activity relationship, we examined changes of.
Acylation of one of the nitrogen atoms of the piperazine moiety led to strongly decreased toxicity of the compound although its antiviral properties did not increase.
The derivatives containing 1-methylpiperazine and 1-ethylpiperazine motifs showed moderate antiviral activity. It was also demonstrated that in the case of a short linker, the stereochemistry of the compound does not affect the cytotoxicity of the compound but is of critical significance for anti-viral activity. Indeed, compounds 7 and 25 are based on two optical isomers of borneol, and their values of IC 50 differ tenfold 7. This, however, was not important for two other isomers, 16 and 26, with a longer linker and which have similar values of both toxicity and activity and, therefore, similar SIs 45 and 65, respectively.
This phenomenon should be further studied, in particular using computer simulation of ligand—target interaction. Also, the structure—activity analysis of this new series of borneol derivatives revealed that the 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2. Among all the compounds tested, the highest activity was found in substances 7, 16 and 26, combining a morpholine fragment and 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2. Lipophilicity is a physicochemical property of principal importance in drug discovery and development.
All the new, examined compounds have the optimum lipophilicity range with a log P value of 3. In Chapter 75 of Miraculous Pivot it says: Another function of moxibustion is to induce qi and blood to flow upward or downward. For example, moxibustion is given to yongquan [KI-1] to treat the disorders caused by excess in the upper part and deficiency in the lower part of the body and liver yang symptoms due to upward flowing yang qi so as to lead the qi and blood to go downward If the disorder is due to deficiency in the upper portion and excess in the lower portion of the body and due to sinking of qi caused by deficiency, such as prolapse of the anus, prolapse of the uterus, prolonged diarrhea, etc.
To strengthen yang from collapse. Yang qi is the foundation of the human body. If it is in a sufficient condition, a man lives a long life; if it is lost, death occurs. Yang disorder is due to excess of yin, leading to cold, deficiency, and exhaustion of the primary qi, characterized by a fatal pulse. At this moment, moxibustion applied can reinforce yang qi and prevent collapse. In Chapter 73 of Miraculous Pivot it says, "Deficiency of both yin and yang should be treated by moxibustion.
In Precious Prescriptions appears the following description: It is often said, "If one wants to be healthy, you should often have moxibustion over the point zusanli [ST]. For example, when moxa cones are burned on the end of acupuncture needles, the constituents of the moxa do not interact with the skin and the local effect is that of transferring heat to the acupoint.
When a moxa pole is used, there is some transfer of active constituents to the skin, but not much; the effect is still mostly heat, but to a broader area. When the moxa cone is burned directly on the skin, active constituents are transferred to the skin. This latter method was the most commonly used traditional approach, as best as one can tell from the old literature.
When moxa is burned on top of another herbal material, such as a slice of ginger or garlic, cake of aconite, or mound of salt or powder of herbs in the navel, the heat will drive some of the ingredients of the interposing herbal material into the skin, but little of the moxa wool ingredients will penetrate. Fresh ginger, one of the commonly used interposing materials, contains compounds similar to borneol and camphor small holes in the slice of ginger or slice of garlic permit a little of the moxa vapors to penetrate.
Of course, with all moxibustion techniques, the smoke and vapors from the moxa are ultimately inhaled.
The modern smokeless moxa poles are intended to eliminate this otherwise sure route to getting moxa ingredients internally, and might defeat part of the therapeutic action. The Chinese technique of applying moxibustion for an extended period of time up to 30 minutes for a treatment sessionassures that the patient inhales a substantial amount of the vapors and smoke.
The different styles of moxa application and the method of Keeping-fit Moxibustion the fourth application listed above was elaborated by Yuan Liren and Liu Xiaoming 16though with reliance on different points, namely shenque [CV-8], zhongwan [CV], yongquan KI-1], and zusanli [ST], the latter point was mentioned above and is a standard for many acupuncture and moxibustion treatments.
According to the authors, these points are selected and treated as follows: Frequent moxibustion on zusanli can invigorate the spleen and stomach, assist in digestion, and hence, strengthen the body and slow down the process of aging.
Some ancient experts advocated the use of scarring moxibustion, placing moxa wool directly on the skin over the point so that a scar is formed after the local skin has developed a boil with pus.
Question: . What is the relationship between borneol and isoborneol?
Constant application of scarring moxibustion will maintain the moxibustion boil, and this will help to strengthen the body and prolong life. Another similar method, known as hanging moxibustion, is composed of hanging an ignited moxa stick centimeters over the point without touching the skin for minutes.
Frequent moxibustion on this point can replenish qi and strengthen the body; it is especially suitable for the middle-aged and elderly. The particular procedure of this kind of moxibustion is as follows: The size of the moxa cone should vary with the individual conditions. For people of strong constitution, use big cones in the size of a broad bean and for those of weak constitution, use the middle-sized cones as big as a soybean or use small cones in the size of a wheat grain.
The burning up of one moxa cone is referred to as one zhuang. Moxibustion on shenque point requires zhuan g. This point is an important point for reinforcement, capable of strengthening the spleen and stomach. Both moxa stick and moxa cone are advisable for moxibustion on this point, the duration of which may last minutes. Frequent moxibustion at this point can strengthen the body and contribute to longevity, for it replenishes the kidney and invigorates yang.
When using moxa sticks for moxibustion, it should last minutes, and in the case of using moxa cones, cones are usually needed each time. The authors state that the duration of moxibustion should be at least minutes, but not more than minutes.
A relatively longer duration of treatment is indicated for recovery from a serious disease or injury to recapture good health, in autumn and winter, on points of the abdomen i. Relatively shorter duration of treatment is indicated for simple health maintenance and longevity promotion, for spring and summer treatments, when applying moxibustion to the limbs i.
The aim of strengthening the body and achieving longevity cannot be achieved by just applying moxibustion once or twice, for it requires persistence for a long time. This does not mean that one should receive moxibustion every day.
For the purpose of convalescence for the weak and sick, the moxibustion may be applied once every days in the early stage; yet for reinforcement of the body or longevity, it should be once a week in the early stage. And when it has shown some effect, the frequency can be reduced to once a month, and later, once or twice every three months, or even once or twice a year.
So long as the practice is persisted in, good effect is sure to ensue. A treatment along these lines was described by Song and Zhu 17 in one of the few articles on moxibustion in the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. They treated 97 patients with gastric spasms or intestinal spasms with moxibustion, relying primarily on the abdomen points CV-8 along with ST for intestinal spasm and CV along with ST for gastric spasm.
The secondary points surrounding ST were picked because of the intent to treat an acute symptom, but the function is similar. The authors report that nearly all the patients had their abdominal pain alleviated with one treatment.
The technique used was: The moxa roll was ignited and placed over the selected points to produce a comfortable warm feeling.
When the heat became excessive, the moxa roll was moved around the points or a little higher to avoid burns. A piece of gauze could be laid over the point to protect the skin from accidental injury.
Today, especially in the West, herbal moxibustion is sometimes substituted by heat lamps or other techniques that eliminate the artemisia altogether. This may change the functions of moxibustion in a way that is not known. Also, many traditional moxa specialists believed that blistering of the skin was essential to the success of moxibustion when treating serious ailments, much the way that getting the qi reaction to needling was deemed essential to getting success with acupuncture therapy.
This method is even mentioned in relation to Keeping-fit Moxibustion, which is for preventive health care. Such intensive moxibustion is avoided in the Western practice, which follows more closely the method used for the gastric and intestinal spasm treatments, though most Westerners use very brief rather than prolonged moxa therapy in the study mentioned above, the duration of treatment was about 15 minutes per point at two points to yield a 30 minute moxa session.
One theory of the effects of moxibustion and acupuncture is that the local tissue damage twisting of nerve fibers when stimulating acupuncture needles, extended cellular damage by the intense heat of moxibustion initiates a non-specific healing reaction that can have effects throughout the body.Oxidation of Isoborneol
Modern techniques of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy may rely, instead on mechanisms of stimulation that do not depend on tissue damage. However, it must also be recognized that some modern techniques may do little more than comfortably warm the skin and help induce general relaxation.
An additional impact of moxibustion may be to help sterilize the atmosphere of the rooms in which it is being used. In China an incense made of artemisia and atractylodes cangzhuwhen burned in an outpatient operation room, would reduce the bacterial count in the air.
It also apparently inhibited viruses.
Isoborneol, (-)- | C10H18O - PubChem
According to Chinese evaluations, it could be used in kindergartens and nurseries to reduce the transmission of diseases, including chicken pox, mumps, scarlet fever, common cold, and bronchitis. Thus, when used in an acupuncture clinic, the smoke from moxibustion might help to prevent transmission of disease from one patient to another, which is especially important when dealing with immune-compromised patients.
This report was provided by Smith and Stuart: As this plant [artemisia] is so frequently used as a charm, and is held in a measure of superstitious veneration by the people, it is a little difficult to determine just where its remedial use in native therapeutics begins. At the time of the Dragon Festival fifth day of the fifth moonthe Artemisia is hung up to ward off noxious influences. This is done either together with a Taoist charm, in which case it is called aifu and is hung at the head of the principal room of the house, or together with the Acorus calamus changpu at the door; the leaves of the latter being formed in the shape of a sword called puchien and placed over the door, while the stalk of the artemisia is hung on each door post.
That this was efficacious in at least one instance was attested by the fact that the famous rebel Huang Ch'ao gave orders to his soldiers to spare any family that had Artemisia hung up at the door.
What kind of isomers are borneol and isoborneol? | Yahoo Answers
The moxa is employed by Buddhist priests in initiating neophytes; three rows of three, four, or five scars each being burned on the crown of the head with this substance. Many also use the moxa on a three day old child, burning one or more scars on the face; this being supposed to insure the child's living through infancy.
The places of burning are between the brows, on each cheek a little distance beneath the eyes, and at the root of the nose on the upper lip. The uses of artemisia by the Chinese find a remarkable parallel with that of the Native Americans.
Probably the most commonly used herb for dispelling demons is the one we often refer to as "wild sage" but is actually artemisia. The following descriptions come from Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region 18including mention of simple herbal remedies with demon-dispelling approaches: