gender relations | EIGE
Gender identity and gender role Gender identity is defined as a and an appropriate relationship between the physician and the patient. Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity This change in the meaning of gender can be traced to the s. . Social roles of men and women in relation to each other is based on the. This article will look at the meaning of "sex" and the differences between roles, and relationships of and between groups of women and men.
In general terms, "sex" refers to the biological differences between males and females, such as the genitalia and genetic differences. Sometimes, a person's genetically assigned sex does not line up with their gender identity. These individuals might refer to themselves as transgender, non-binary, or gender-nonconforming. Sex "Sex" generally refers to biological differences. The differences between male and female sexes are anatomical and physiological. For instance, male and female genitalia, both internal and external are different.
Similarly, the levels and types of hormones present in male and female bodies are different. Genetic factors define the sex of an individual. Women have 46 chromosomes including two Xs and men have 46 including an X and a Y. The Y chromosome is dominant and carries the signal for the embryo to begin growing testes. Both men and women have testosteroneestrogenand progesterone. However, women have higher levels of estrogen and progesterone, and men have higher levels of testosterone.
For instance, some men are born with two or three X chromosomes, just as some women are born with a Y chromosome. Gender is not determined biologically, as a result of sexual characteristics of either women or men, but is constructed socially.
Despite this definition, gender is often misunderstood as being the promotion of women only.Sex vs Gender vs Orientation
However, as we see from the FAO definition, gender issues focus on women and on the relationship between men and women, their roles, access to and control over resources, division of labour, interests and needs. Gender relations affect household security, family well-being, planning, production and many other aspects of life Bravo-Baumann, They vary among different societies and cultures, classes, ages and during different periods in history.
Gender-specific roles and responsibilities are often conditioned by household structure, access to resources, specific impacts of the global economy, and other locally relevant factors such as ecological conditions FAO, Gender relations are the ways in which a culture or society defines rights, responsibilities, and the identities of men and women in relation to one another Bravo-Baumann, Through their daily work, rural people have accumulated knowledge and skills concerning their ecosystems, local crop varieties, animal breeds, agricultural systems and the nutritional values of various underused plants.
They have become adept at maintaining their own scarce resources. Men and women act differently, because of their socially ascribed roles; therefore they have different sets of knowledge and needs. Experience shows that agricultural, environmental and related policies and programmes do not differentiate between male and female farmers.
What is gender?
This has significant consequences for biodiversity as well as for gender equality. It was grown near rivers or where water stagnated during the rainy season. Women would take care of the field individually or in a group. Their knowledge of landraces was vast. While boys turn into men with full-fledged citizenship rights upon reaching maturity, girls become women through marriage. The relationship between a mother and her children, especially her sons, is cherished and celebrated more publicly than all other relationships.
In rare cases where the theme of matricide finds public expression, the focus is on the adversarial relations between two women: A man could no longer marry an additional wife without the consent of his first wife.
The Islamic Republic proceeded quickly to re-institute the patriarchal family. Maintaining that the rebirth of the Islamic society would be possible only through the re-Islamization of the nuclear family, the Constitution of the Islamic Republic suspended previous reforms in personal status laws. It lowered the age of marriage to nine for girls and fifteen for boys.
It returned automatic custodial rights to the father or the male paternal kin. In marriage and divorce, it is the man who negotiates the beginning or the termination of a contract. She cannot marry a non-Muslim.
She cannot have a career, or leave the country without the permission of her husband. If a wife is habitually disobedient, e.
Since marriage is not a sacrament, but rather a contract, it is dissoluble. Divorce is a lawful option for irreconcilable differences between married couples. A man, however, can give his wife the legal power to initiate divorce proceedings. Since marriage is viewed as a contract, some stipulations can be included in it. They automatically pass on their citizenship and last name to them.
The man-as-breadwinner ethos pervades the Constitution. The husband enjoys ownership rights over her sexual organs. Marital sex, even when she does not desire to engage in it, is a wifely duty. The same rule applies to nafaqa. Twenty years after the Revolution, the contradictions between normative morality and social realities, between legislation and social practices, are widening and growing rapidly. In spite of legal restrictions, substantial transformations are affecting gender relations.
Many men and women are moving out of preordained cultural frames and territories, stretching fields of action and imagination. Women, seeking educational, occupational, political, and cultural options outside the traditional domestic sphere, are invading previously all-male territories.
Men are becoming more active participants in family life. The laws, following rather than anticipating the trend in gender relations, are being revised and amended. Although family laws have been particularly resistant to reform, familial rights and obligations are being reconfigured. The shift in the official discourse of the Islamic Republic regarding certain family laws is a clear indication of this dramatic restructuring.
Gender relations in contemporary Persia, a complex mixture of protest and accommodation, of resistance and acquiescence, of tradition and modernity, continues to be the focus of intense debate.
It has captured the cultural imagination and is often at the center of political discourse. Afary, The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, Amanat, Resurrection and Renewal: Bagley as From Darkness into Light: Bayat, Mysticism and Dissent, Syracuse, N. Bouhdiba, Sexuality in Islam, London, Davis, Epic and Sedition: Haeri, Law of Desire: Milani, The Persian Sphinx: Milani, Veils and Words: Legal and Literary Perspectives, London,pp.
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Moghissi, Populism and Feminism in Iran, London Idem, Feminism and Islamic Fundamentalism: The Limits of Postmodern Analysis, London, Kandiyoti, Gendering the Middle East: Emerging Perspectives, London,pp. Idem, Zan, Tehran, Schirazi, The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the State in the Islamic Republic, tr.