Potassium and sodium out of balance - Harvard Health
Among them, high sodium intake was focused as a major risk factor to raise blood pressure. Potassium was also studied in relation to lowering blood pressure. If potassium levels are low, the body tries to hoard it, which also . A diet high in sodium increases the amount of calcium excreted in the urine. Potassium, Sodium, and High Blood Pressure. There is a strong relationship between consuming too much sodium and having higher blood.
This gender difference was not consistent in previous studies. The DASH-sodium and TOHP-1 trials were among subjects with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension and thus results from these studies could not directly compared with our findings. A Japanese study suggested a possible mechanism for gender difference between sodium intake and blood pressure; there may be no gender difference in salt-sensitivity and more decrease of plasma rennin activity after NaCl load in men than in women may make different blood pressure elevation between men and women [ 29 ].
Potassium and blood pressure hypothesis is that high potassium intake may have beneficial effect on lowering blood pressure [ 23 ] and it may be through increasing sodium excretion and decreasing calcium excretion [ 5 ]. However, there was no inverse relationship of potassium intake with blood pressure in the present study. It was consistent with the findings of previous Korean studies [ 1425 ].
These results could be due to potassium source foods, vegetables, which were mainly eaten with salt or salty seasonings. Koreans frequently have various Kimchies pickled in salt and also have a lot of cooked or raw vegetables with salt or salty seasonings such as soy sauce, soybean paste, or red pepper paste.
Recently, sodium to potassium ratio, rather than sodium and potassium itself, was recommended [ 4 ]. This positive relation among men was not found among women.
The Dallas Heart Study also cross-sectionally demonstrated gender difference that the DBP increase was higher in men than in women per 3-unit increase in urinary sodium to potassium ratio [ 30 ]. Despite general recommendation of fruits and vegetables, there were not many epidemiologic studies on the effect of fruits and vegetables on blood pressure.
There were some well-known clinical trials using diet rich in fruits and vegetables [ 2832 ]. The most well-known trial is the DASH [ 28 ], which showed that the fruits and vegetables diet reduced systolic blood pressure by 2. Although the DASH trial was carried out among adults with borderline high blood pressure and showed beneficial effect, this study suggests the possibility that dietary pattern relatively rich in fruits and vegetables may be beneficial, but salty vegetables may be harmful on blood pressure.
The mechanisms of beneficial effect of fruits and vegetables are still unclear. Potassium, calcium, and magnesium, which are rich in fruits and vegetables, may reduce blood pressure [ 3334 ]. In addition, the DASH may lower blood pressure, beyond those minerals and fiber, possibly by antioxidants and isoflavones [ 35363738 ].
In addition, the fruits consumption was linearly related to DBP for men. However, it was not explained by the potassium effect and by the calcium and fiber effect, because potassium was highly correlated with sodium and calcium and fiber was considered as confounders. Thus, this study also could expect the possible effect of antioxidants or isoflavones like the DASH study. Therefore, further study on other components of fruits and vegetables other than potassium, calcium, and fiber involved in reduction of blood pressure is needed.
In the present study, the gender difference in the relationship between fruits consumption and blood pressure was found. The positive relationship between fruits consumption and SBP for women may be explained by high content of fructose in fruits, which may induce hypertension [ 39 ].
However, the female sex hormone may play an important role in the prevention of hypertension secondary to insulin resistance [ 39 ] and thus fructose could not explain the gender difference in this study, although the high proportion of women Therefore, further studies are needed to confirm this finding and the possible mechanisms. We did not find beneficial effect of raw vegetables among men and women, and harmful effect of fruits among women, in contrast to beneficial effect among men.
The non-significant finding in raw vegetables may be inferred from a unique Korean culture that most vegetables are cooked with salty seasonings. The inverse relation of fruits to blood pressure among men in the present study was in agreement with the KNHANES III finding showing that fruit intake estimated by a 24 hour recall was negatively associated with SBP among subjects with metabolic syndrome [ 26 ].
- The relation of potassium and sodium intakes to diet cost among US adults
- Potassium and sodium out of balance
- Why potassium helps
This anti-hypertensive effect of fruits may be through antioxidant vitamins, fiber content, favonols, anthocyanins, and procyanindins [ 40 ]. Meanwhile, because the experimental studies suggested that an acute effect of fructose raise blood pressure [ 41 ], fructose from fruits may explain the positive relation of fruits among women.
However, the conflicting effect of antioxidants and fructose in fruits on blood pressure could not explain the gender-difference in the relationship between fruits and blood pressure. Several limitations should be considered to interpret results in the present study. First, because this study design was cross-sectional, we cannot conclude the causality in the present study. Second, the relatively low coverage of sodium intake from the food-based FFQ not including most seasonings is the important limitation to interpret the findings, although, as we described in the above, the FFQ in the present study included most of sodium source.
The validity of dietary sodium intake using dietary assessment methods, regardless of 24 hour recalls, records, and FFQ, may be low. Therefore, the relation we found in the present study should be confirmed in a large prospective study using more valid sodium and potassium assessment methods.
Third, Korean diet is complicate to study on sodium intake and blood pressure due to various sources of sodium such as homemade seasonings and due to common sources of beneficial and harmful effect such as vegetables with salty seasonings. Thus, it was difficult to dissociate the effects of highly correlated nutrients with each other on blood pressure. Therefore, the intervention studies using Korean diet separating beneficial and harmful components and using low salt Kimchies and vegetables on blood pressure are needed.
The present study findings suggest that dietary recommendation should be culture-sensitive and in the aspect of public health, low salt Kimchies and vegetables should be recommended to prevent hypertension. Global burden of hypertension: J Am Diet Assoc. World Health Organization; Sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of hypertension. N Engl J Med. Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: Am J Clin Nutr.
The relation of potassium and sodium intakes to diet cost among US adults
Relation of raw and cooked vegetable consumption to blood pressure: Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of hypertension in middle-aged and older women. Role of vegetables and fruits in Mediterranean diets to prevent hypertension. Eur J Clin Nutr. Joffe M, Robertson A. The potential contribution of increased vegetable and fruit consumption to health gain in the European Union. Korea Health Statistics Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Nutrient intake, lifestyle factors and prevalent hypertension in Korean adults: Korean J Community Nutr.
Nutritional environment influences hypertension in the middle-aged Korean adults: Validation and reproducibility of food frequency questionnaire for Korean genome epidemiologic study. The Korean Nutrition Society. Recommended Dietary Allowances for Koreans. The Korean Nutrition Society; Oxford Universtiy Press; Dietary protein and blood pressure: The effect of nutrition on blood pressure.
The Relationships Between Salt & Potassium
Possible role of salt intake in the development of essential hypertension. Dietary salt intake and blood pressure in a representative Japanese population: Randomized trials of sodium reduction: Effects of sodium restriction on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride: Dietary risk factors associated with hypertension in patients. Relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure according to metabolic syndrome status in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Relationship between dietary sodium, potassium, and calcium, anthropometric indexes, and blood pressure in young and middle aged Korean adults.8 Potassium Rich Foods
A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. Effects of age and sex on sodium chloride sensitivity: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol.
Relationship of urinary sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratio to blood pressure in older adults in Australia. Intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products in early childhood and subsequent blood pressure change. Effect of short-term supplementation of potassium chloride and potassium citrate on blood pressure in hypertensives. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: Combined calcium, magnesium and potassium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: DASH diet lowers blood pressure and lipid-induced oxidative stress in obesity. But it's good to know that a positive change made for your heart is doing good things elsewhere in the body. Food companies continue to blur the boundary between food and medicine. An early entry, a margarine-like spread called Benecol, contains sterol esters derived from vegetable oil or wood pulp that help lower cholesterol.
One of the latest entries is Promise Supershots for blood pressure. Each three-ounce bottle delivers milligrams mg of potassium, with just a hint of sodium 20 mg and a few calories According to its maker, Unilever, this fruit-based drink is a good source of potassium for controlling blood pressure.
Ounce for ounce, it costs more than a medium okay, Grande latte at Starbucks which, by the way, has more potassium than a Supershot.
And you can get more potassium from a banana or some raisins, which also give you fiber and a host of other nutrients. For most people, more potassium and less sodium is good for health. If you aren't inclined to eat fruit or vegetables, then a daily Supershot might help.
But you'll get more from eating potassium-rich foods, for less out of your pocket. A diet for the ages Our Stone Age ancestors consumed about 16 times more potassium than sodium.
Modern tribes of hunter-gatherers have similarly high ratios. That's a far cry from the average American diet, which has about twice as much sodium as potassium. In a typical example — bacon, eggs, and tomato juice for breakfast; a ham sandwich and a soda for lunch; a bag of tortilla chips for a snack; and fettuccine alfredo, canned green beans, and garlic bread for dinner — there are 1, mg of potassium and 4, mg of sodium, for a ratio of 0.