Ecological interactions (article) | Ecology | Khan Academy
Ecology: The study of the interrelationships between living organisms and the living in general characteristics and in their relationships to the physical environment. together with all the living and non-living things with which they interact. Relationships between members of an ecological community can be classified within two broad categories, direct effects and indirect effects. The first of these. Read and learn for free about the following article: Ecological interactions. Predation (+ -) is another winner-loser relationship but it is not symbiosis.
The Double Negative Competition exists when multiple organisms vie for the same, limiting resource. Because the use of a limited resource by one species decreases availability to the other, competition lowers the fitness of both. Competition can be interspecific, between different species, or intraspecific, between individuals of the same species.
In the s, Russian ecologist Georgy Gause proposed that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist in the same place at the same time. As a consequence, one species may be driven to extinction, or evolution reduces the competition.
Sciencing Video Vault Mutualism: Everyone Wins Mutualism describes an interaction that benefits both species.
Biological interaction - Wikipedia
A well-known example exists in the mutualistic relationship between alga and fungus that form lichens. The photsynthesizing alga supplies the fungus with nutrients, and gains protection in return.
A food chain in a wet meadow could be: Food chains begin from producers to consumers and the major feeding levels are called Trophic Levels. Producers belong to the First Trophic Level. Primary consumers, whether feeding on living or dead producers feed from the Second Trophic Level. Organisms that feed on other consumers belong to the Third Tropic Level.25. Interaction in ecosystem
Examples include ticks, fleas, mosquitoes, mistletoe plants and fungi. Plant and animal species compete over food, water, territorial space and mating with the opposite sex. The Principle of Competitive Exclusion: Closely related species therefore live far from one another. This is because plants and animals must compete for water, nutrients, light and space. The outcome of this competition determines the character of an ecosystem.
In fact, they have many different types of interactions with each other, and many of these interactions are critical for their survival.
So what do these interactions look like in an ecosystem? One category of interactions describes the different ways organisms obtain their food and energy. Some organisms can make their own food, and other organisms have to get their food by eating other organisms. An organism that must obtain their nutrients by eating consuming other organisms is called a consumer, or a heterotroph.
While there are a lot of fancy words related to the sciences, one of the great things is that many of them are based on Latin or Greek roots.
They then use the energy and materials in that food to grow, reproduce and carry out all of their life activities. All animals, all fungi, and some kinds of bacteria are heterotrophs and consumers.
Some consumers are predators; they hunt, catch, kill, and eat other animals, the prey. The prey animal tries to avoid being eaten by hiding, fleeing, or defending itself using various adaptations and strategies. These could be the camouflage of an octopus or a fawn, the fast speed of a jackrabbit or impala, or the sting of a bee or spines of a sea urchin.
If the prey is not successful, it becomes a meal and energy source for the predator. If the prey is successful and eludes its predator, the predator must expend precious energy to continue the hunt elsewhere. Predators can also be prey, depending on what part of the food chain you are looking at. For example, a trout acts as a predator when it eats insects, but it is prey when it is eaten by a bear. It all depends on the specific details of the interaction. Ecologists use other specific names that describe what type of food a consumer eats: Omnivores eat both animals and plants.
Once again, knowing the Latin root helps a lot: For example, an insectivore is a carnivore that eats insects, and a frugivore is an herbivore that eats fruit.
This may seem like a lot of terminology, but it helps scientists communicate and immediately understand a lot about a particular type of organism by using the precise terms. Not all organisms need to eat others for food and energy.