Psychoanalytic theory - Wikipedia
Personality and Individual Differences: Literature in Psychology- . and attempts to explain observable behavior and its relationship to the unseen mental Sometimes a psychological theory, held either consciously or dimly by an author, . Psychoanalytic literary criticism is literary criticism or literary theory which, in method, concept, Critics may view the fictional characters as psychological case studies, attempting to identify such . "soul" contrast with the conscious self, The chiasmic relation between the two tales may be seen as a sane and safe acting out. Psychology and Literature: An Interdisciplinary Relationship On this basis, various psychological theories utilize different schemes in order to explain.
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Why Literature Needs Psychology
When I thought of introducing a psychological context to these discussions, I balked, restrained by a sure premonition of pushback, or worse, blank stares. I do not think this dread was unfounded. No matter that the psychoanalytic tradition was quick to outgrow Freudian orthodoxy, beginning with Jung and Lacan and continuing into its present incarnation, which ranges from Buddhist mindfulness to gestalt to feminist analysis.
And even the ideas of Freud himself were never confined to the pinhole of the individual and his neuroses; he was always already writing social theory on a grand scale. Snow to describe the chasm in Western intellectual life between the humanities and the sciences. Though some have heard in the current vogue of multi- and interdisciplinary studies the death knell of the culture war, we are everywhere surrounded by evidence of its vigor.
Too much pathology, says Roth, which is too particular, too strange to generalize in the way that literature ought to allow for.
As though pathology were not universal. As though there were any difference between mind and brain. And as though the scope of human knowledge were a finite resource, to be doled out between disciplines like wartime rations. Rather than berate the neuronovelist for letting icky science into her writing, we ought to commend her for broadening the purview of literature to include insights gleaned from other territories.
If we want literature to inhabit the full measure of human experience, it must stretch to accommodate new ways of knowing the world.
And if we want to catch glimpses of the truths that govern human culture and behavior, we must open ourselves to the wisdom, no matter how surprising or counterintuitive, of strangers working in strange lands.
One of the most successful cross-pollinators of literature and psychology has been Dr. Irvin Yalom, a Hopkins-trained psychiatrist, clinical and academic psychologist, and writer. Yalom has written scholarly texts, short stories, and novels.
His model of existential psychotherapy represents an approach to science colored by a deep knowledge of literature; his literary writing is similarly informed by his years of study and practice in psychology.
He is interested, above all, in how to cope with the meaninglessness and isolation of existence, and so his writing is beloved by readers across disciplines and preferences. Ginny and Yalom each wrote logs of their therapy sessions together, which are therein collected in chronological order. The accounts differ in style and content, yet the reader can clearly trace the development of the therapeutic relationship, its slow burn, its moments of spark and combustion.
It is the kind of book that enlarges your idea of what storytelling can do. It is also a reminder that the field of psychology is both a body of writing and a practice, which two cannot be disentangled one from the other.
Why Literature Needs Psychology | Literary Hub
The theory exists in service of the praxis, which is ultimately a pursuit of wellness through counseling, medication, and a variety of other treatments. Psychology, that is to say, is about doing.
Even its pure research arm, which, like all scientific research, seeks knowledge partly for its own sake, harbors an outsize focus on the pragmatic applications of its findings. Literature, as an art, can and should not embrace such a functional aim. This is a core distinction between the two. Which is not to belittle the therapeutic value of reading. Beyond the immediate pleasure of the text, good books kindle empathy, expand our sense of what is possible, offer escape both out of and into the world.
But does reading make us happy? Can it heal the wounds of early life that dog us into adulthood? Much if not most of the emotional work we do in this life is, in the words of Edward St.
Due to the instinctual quality of the id, it is impulsive and often unaware of implications of actions. The ego is driven by the reality principle. The ego works to balance the id and superego, by trying to achieve the id's drive in the most realistic ways. It seeks to rationalize the id's instinct and please the drives that benefit the individual in the long term. It helps separate what is real, and realistic of our drives as well as being realistic about the standards that the superego sets for the individual.
The superego is driven by the morality principle. It acts in connection with the morality of higher thought and action. Instead of instinctively acting like the id, the superego works to act in socially acceptable ways.
It employs morality, judging our sense of wrong and right and using guilt to encourage socially acceptable behavior. Freud said that it is the unconscious that exposes the true feelings, emotions, and thoughts of the individual.
There are variety of psychoanalytic techniques used to access and understand the unconscious, ranging from methods like hypnosis, free association, and dream analysis. Dreams allow us to explore the unconscious; according to Freud, they are "the 'royal road' to the unconscious". Whereas latent content is the underlying meaning of a dream that may not be remembered when a person wakes up, manifest content is the content from the dream that a person remembers upon waking and can be analyzed by a psychoanalytic psychologist.
Exploring and understanding the manifest content of dreams can inform the individual of complexes or disorders that may be under the surface of their personality.
Dreams can provide access to the unconscious that is not easily accessible. They are considered mistakes revealing the unconscious. Examples range from calling someone by the wrong name, misinterpreting a spoken or written word, or simply saying the wrong thing. It thus reacts to protect the individual from any stressors and anxiety by distorting reality.
This prevents threatening unconscious thoughts and material from entering the consciousness. The different types of defense mechanisms are: Repressionreaction formationdenialprojectiondisplacementsublimationregressionand rationalization.
It is a stage theory that believes progress occurs through stages as the libido is directed to different body parts. The different stages, listed in order of progression, are: The Genital stage is achieved if people meet all their needs throughout the other stages with enough available sexual energy.