Lesson 5: What Happened Between the Pilgrims and the Native Americans?
Most of us associate the holiday with happy Pilgrims and Indians sitting down . on the settlement of New England and the evolution of Indian/White relations in the something of the power of the white people, and they did not fully trust them . Europeans would show up, and Indians would be interested in their trade set up a good trading relationship, control supply of English goods, and the not to trust Tisquantum, who soon tried to pit the Pilgrims against him. The Pilgrims and Wampanoag Indians did have a harmonious relationship in the early years of the Plymouth Colony. The Pilgrims and Indians probably kept mostly to themselves. Gov. William Bradford greets Tosowet, right, a Wampanoag Indian, in a re-enactment at Plimoth Plantation on.
But when the "Friers sic of those parts" discovered what he was doing, they took the rest to be "instructed in the Christian Faith; and so disappointed this unworthy fellow of his hopes of gaine …"  What basis he had, if any, for this claim is unknown; in fact, it is likely he never met Squanto, at least before The outrage was long remembered by the Natives around Cape Cod Bay. In the Nauset refused the advances of the first Mayflower scouting party and eventually attacked them.
Even when the English settled Plymouth, far from the home of the Nausets, the Natives haunted the settlement from a nearby hill. Squanto later mediated a meeting between the Plymouth settlers and the Nauset on Cape Cod, and the English learned what deep pain still remained from the kidnapping. A woman, who they thought was at least years old, came out to meet them, yet could not look at them "without breaking forth into great passion, weeping and crying excessively".
She told them that Hunt had taken her three sons and now "shee was deprived of the comfort of her children in her old age.
No records show how long Squanto lived in Spain, what he did there or how he "got away for England" as Bradford put it . He was an investor in the East India Company.Native Americans and American Colonists (Story Time with Mr. Beat)
But more importantly for Squanto he was one of the grantees of the Newfoundland patent  and treasurer of the Company of Adventurers and Planters of London and Bristol who were to exploit the grant. The great epidemic and Squanto's return to New England[ edit ] The devastation of the New England sea-coast[ edit ] During the time Squanto spent in Spain and England, a virulent pestilence descended on southern New England.
There is no consensus on what disease struck—if indeed it was only one disease. The testimony of the two eye witnesses who wrote about it, however, attests to the extraordinarily lethal consequences of the epidemic.
Richard Vinesalong the Saco River in Maine in the employ of Ferdinando Gorges to assess the nature of winters there in —17, informed Gorges that he and his men lived in the same cabins with the Natives, but they did not experience the head aches that were a symptom of the plague that rendered that country "void of Inhabitants".
He wrote Samuel Purchas in December describing the "plague" he had seen all along the coast, of seeing "the sores of some that had escaped, who described the spots of such as usually die". The fury of the contagion began no later than and continued unabated until and may have continued in population pockets for years after that. The coastal Abenaki as far north as the Kennebec were nearly wiped out.
Pilgrims and Indians: A practical relationship
Due south on Cape Cod the three villages there numbered bywhereas Champlain estimated that two of them contained between — On the coast between those villages and the Kennebec there was nothing but devastation.
Where Champlain and Smith found almost continual habitation and agriculture, there was nothing but empty land. The Pennacook, Massachuset and Pokanoket were nearly annihilated. Smith wrote that in three successive years "neere two hundred miles along the Sea coast, that in some places there scarce remained five of a hundred …"  But the epidemic ended at the border of the Pokanoket and the Narragansett, for there was no trading between them; the Narragansett traded with the Dutch, and not part of the French network.
The conclusion is almost inescapable: Edward Winslow on his first journey inland to the village of Pokanoket saw the evidence of many towns now abandoned: And the bones and skulls upon the severall places of their habitations, made such a spectacle after my coming into those partes, that, as I travailed in the forest nere the Massachussets, it seemed to mee a new found Golgatha.
He told of a shipwreck where two men escaped on shore, one dying and the other living among the Massachuset people. The survivor tried to persuade the Natives of the superiority of the Christian God, but the sachem mocked him showing his assembled people from a hilltop and asked the Christian "if God has so many people and able to kill all those?
The remaining two surrendered their Country to the English. They crew were distributed among five local sachem, who treated them as slaves. One of the survivors warned his tormentors of God's wrath, which warning was spurned, and the pestilence followed on the heels of that arrogance. Squanto's return to New England[ edit ] How Squanto came to be in Newfoundland in was not explained.
Slany, associated as he was with the royal land grant there and the company who intended to settle or otherwise exploit it, doubtless had means to send Squanto there, perhaps by one of he vessels regularly in the fish and wine trade among Newfoundland, the Mediterranean and England. Squanto and Dermer talked of New England while in Newfoundland, and Squanto so persuaded him that his Dermer's fortune could be made there as Gorges put it Squanto "drew his affections wholly to follow his hopes that way" that Dermer wrote Gorges of his belief and requested that Gorges send him a commission to act in New England.
The next season Gorges sent Captain Rowcraft to meet Dermer at Monhegan, but through a combination of events sounding implausible, Rowcraft ended up going to Virginia where he once livedgot into a fight and was killed. He arrived shortly after Rowcraft departed. Gorges dispatched Dermer "with his Salvage" on the next vessel ready in the fishing trade to New England, and Gorges also assigned him a group of men to join with Rowcraft.
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He soon heard from the mutineers that Rowcraft had gone to Virginia. So Dermer waited until a vessel from there brought news of Rowcraft's death. He decided to take the pinnace assigned to Rowcraft the year before to continue the plans that Gorges laid out for him; namely, to travel the coast from Gorges's failed Sagadahoc Colony to Capawack Martha's Vineyard where Gorges's dreams of gold mines ended, taking notes of his observations of the coast and sending them to Gorges.
A days' journey brought them to the village of Nemasket spelled Nummasquyt by Dermerfrom which place Dermer sent a messenger probably Squanto  to the village of Pokanoket Poconakitnear present day Bristol, Rhode Islandseat of the sachem the English would call Massasoit. The distance from Nemasket to Pokanoket being a day's journey, it was probably two or more days later when "two kings" "almost certainly Massasoit and his brother Quadequina"  with an armed guard numbering fifty returned with Squanto to Nemasket.
Dermer wrote that the kings were "well satisfied" with what Squanto and Dermer told them the kings "being desirous of noveltie" and so complied with their wishes, one of which was to redeem a French captive at Nemasket. Dermer later also redeemed a sailor who had escaped a shipwreck three years earlier at Mastachusit possibly around Great Blue Hill from which the Massachuset take their name. From there he coasted to Monhegan. The vessel that had brought him from England was about to depart for there, and Dermer sent along a report of his activities to Gorges as well as soil samples.
Also there was the Sampson which had come from Virginia and was to return. Because there were no men to protect his property there, he put most of most of his provisions aboard the Sampson and manned the pinnace and supplied it with the provisions needed for his coasting expedition.
It was at Saco Dermer called it "Sawahquatooke that Dermer left Squanto who, he wrote, "desired in regard of our long journey to stay with some of our Savage friends" there,  later writers presuming he went to look for remaining family.
They tried but failed to do the former and were eventually driven aground a furlough from shore. To avoid being "beaten to pieces", they threw their provisions, most of their apparel and almost everything else overboard and were able to weather the storm until the next high water, which allowed them to get ashore and repair the injury and leaks they sustained to the pinnace.
Without Squanto, Dermer soon encountered hostility from Natives. At Manamock in the southeast corner of Cape Cod, Dermer was captured by the Nauset, who were still seething over English atrocities, including Hunt's kidnapping raid.
Dermer was forced to pay ransom in hatchets, but they still would not release him. He devised an escape and captured their sachem, for whose return they repaid the hatchets and a canoe full of corn, which Dermer desperately needed. On the day of their hanging, an estimated 4, spectators watched them hung.
Their bodies were later taken and used as medical cadavers. A print marking the execution of 38 Dakota men in December of They were sentenced November 5, Hitler Studied Reservations There are many accounts of the Nazis and Hitler studying Indian reservations for guidance in planning encampments for the Jewish.
The Native American Holocaust. Living under armed guards, in holes in the ground, with extremely scarce rations, it is no wonder that more than 3, Navajo and Mescalero Apache men, women, and children died while in the concentration camp. During the film I learned about something that shook me to my core that I had not heard before. I learned that the genocidal mentality and actions of the U. But in 18 years of public school and a few of private Catholic School —not once did I learn about the multitude of tribes, languages or cultures involved in this country.
But historians and interpreters say it was based on practical reasons that hold lessons for such relations today The First Thanksgiving between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoags is one of the most familiar scenes from American lore and history: William Bradford and the English gathered around a long table with Massasoit and his villagers, harmoniously sharing the meal and day.
The Pilgrims and Indians probably kept mostly to themselves. The gathering lasted three days in September, rather than one in November, and turkey and cranberries may not have been part of the feast. The Pilgrims heard the Wampanoags out in the forest for four months before their first face-to-face encounter.
But interpreters at Plimoth Plantation say their early contact offers even more important lessons in how strangers and nations really get along. Lesson one, said associate director and Mashpee Wampanoag Darius Coombs: The Wampanoags outnumbered the Pilgrims, while the Pilgrims had muskets and cannon. But Coombs and deputy director Richard Pickering said a devastating plague and the memory of previous European traders set the stage for an alliance.
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Ships from England and other countries had stopped along the New England coast for a decade before the Pilgrims set sail. Some captured Indians and sold them into slavery, often to teach them European languages so they could be used as guides and translators on return trips.