Akhenaten Biography - Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline
Apr 17, Each day, Akhenaten and Nefertiti processed in their chariots from Freud quotes from James Henry Breasted, the noted archaeologist, that. Akhenaten known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek Modern interest in Akhenaten and his queen Nefertiti comes partly from his .. of a ruler who neglected Egypt's international relations, Akhenaten is known to have initiated at Wikiquote has quotations related to: Akhenaten. The relationship between the pharaoh and the Aten was clearly .. Barry J. Kemp , The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti: Amarna and Its People, .. quote displays several of the assumptions and cultural notions early Egyptologists made, which.
The inscription giving the filiation of the child is damaged, thereby preventing resolution of the issue; alternate explanations proposed have been that Meketaten died of plague, or that the child is a portrayal of Meketaten's ka soul.
Various monuments, originally for Kiya, were reinscribed for Akhenaten's daughters Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten; the revised inscriptions list a Meritaten-tasherit "junior" and an Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit. Some view this to indicate that Akhenaten fathered his own grandchildren.
Pharaoh Akhenaten: A Different View of the Heretic King
Others hold that, since these grandchildren are not attested to elsewhere, they are fictions invented to fill the space originally filled by Kiya's child. Rather than a lover, however, Smenkhkare is likely to have been a half-brother or a son to Akhenaten.
Some have even suggested that Smenkhkare was actually an alias of Nefertiti or Kiya, and therefore one of Akhenaten's wives see below. Twelve years after the death of Amenhotep III, she is still mentioned in inscriptions as queen and beloved of the king, but kings' mothers often were.
International relations[ edit ] Akhenaten in the typical Amarna period style. Painted limestone miniature stela. It shows Akhenaten standing before 2 incense stands, Aten disc above. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London The Amarna Lettersa cache of diplomatic correspondence discovered in modern times at el-Amarna the modern designation of the site of Akhetatenhave provided important evidence about Akhenaten's reign and foreign policy.
This correspondence comprises a priceless collection of incoming messages on clay tablets sent to Akhetaten from various subject rulers through Egyptian military outposts and from the foreign rulers recognized as "Great Kings" of the kingdom of Mitanniof Babylon, of Assyria, and of Hatti. The governors and kings of Egypt's subject domains also wrote frequently to plead for gold from the pharaoh, and also complained that he had snubbed and cheated them.
Early in his reign, Akhenaten had conflicts with Tushrattathe king of Mitanni, who had courted favor with his father against the Hittites. Tushratta complains in numerous letters that Akhenaten had sent him gold-plated statues rather than statues made of solid gold; the statues formed part of the bride-price which Tushratta received for letting his daughter Tadukhepa marry Amenhotep III and then later marry Akhenaten. Amarna letter EA 27 preserves a complaint by Tushratta to Akhenaten about the situation: I will give you ones made also of lapis lazuli.
I will give you too, along with the statues, much additional gold and [other] goods beyond measure.
Your father himself recast the statues [i]n the presence of my messengers, and he made them entirely of pure gold He showed much additional gold, which was beyond measure and which he was sending to me. He said to my messengers, 'See with your own eyes, here the statues, there much gold and goods beyond measure, which I am sending to my brother.
But my brother [i. You have sent plated ones of wood. Given these prevailing moods within the royal family, it should not really be any surprise that the young Amenhotep IV began his reign with certain goals and ideals already set in his mind.
Akhenaten and the Amarna Period
The early name Aten. Courtesy Ted Loukes On his ascension, he began building at Karnak, the long established home of Amun-Ra, decorating the southern entrance with scenes of himself worshipping Ra-Horakhti, as well as building his open-air temple to the east of the main precinct, suggesting that he understood and appreciated the legitimacy of Amun-Ra and that he needed that very legitimacy to underwrite his new religious stance; to give it both credibility and acceptability to the Egyptian people.
It is in these remains that we see the new artistic tendencies known as the Amarna style. Temples and Taxation Despite this religious coexistence, a text from Karnak refers to new taxes that were imposed on temples and municipalities by the king in order to fund the Aten buildings.
This was unusual, as generally temples were exempt from taxation. Temples were not merely places of worship, but also centers for the storage of grain and other necessities, as well as being substantial landowners in their own right. The king parceled out land either as favors or as remuneration to courtiers and the nobility, who were then heavily taxed.
Akhenaten - Wikipedia
The common classes worked the land in return for a percentage of the crop produced. They were usually free from military service, but had to pay taxes.
- Akhenaten: mad, bad, or brilliant?
The artisanal classes and merchants were obliged to do military service and pay taxes. The only ones who escaped these obligations were the priesthood, who naturally grew rich faster than anyone else. Talatat blocks from Akhenaten's Aten temple in Karnak.
A letter from his Memphis steward, dated year 5, 3rd Peret, day 19, greets the king as Amenhotep with all his titles, informing him that his establishments are flourishing. Only twenty-four days later, the first proclamation of the Amarna boundary markers was made in the name of Akhenaten. Although it is impossible to say exactly why Akhenaten felt the need to leave Thebes, he made the point in the Amarna proclamations, that the new site was fresh ground, owing allegiance to neither god, nor person.
A fresh start in the center of Egypt, rather than to the north or the south, may have seemed the ideal solution for the young king.
Maybe he saw a place in between the two as a balance, as a restoration of Maat.