Nucleic Acids Quiz
the specific sequence of amino acids in a protein/polypeptide, determines Understand electronegativity and its relationship to polar and non-polar molecules. This lesson is an introduction to the structure and function of DNA including the process of How many nucleotide bases occur in a nucleic acid: Score Quiz. DNA Quiz. Multiple Choice (1pt each). Directions: Read each question carefully and DNA strands run _____ in relation to each other. a. antiparallel b. parallel c. perpendicular d. both a and b. 3. A nucleotide in DNA is composed of _____.
And they can have on the order of a hundred million rungs to this ladder. Now another thing to appreciate like many other macro molecules, DNA, or nucleic acids in general, they are polymers in that they're made up of building block molecules and those building blocks for nucleic acids and DNA is the most famous nucleic acid and RNA, Ribonucleic acid would be a close second.
But the building blocks of them are known as nucleotides.
And we see some examples of nucleotides over here. This is deoxyadenosine monophosphate, which would be a nucleotide found in DNA.
Nucleic Acids: Function & Structure
You can see the various parts of it. You have a phosphate group right over here. You have a five carbon sugar, which in this case, is ribose. And then you have what is known as a nitrogenous base.
And why is it called nitrogenous? Well all those blue circles represent nitrogen and we've seen this before, the grays are carbons. And the reds are oxygens and the whites hydrogens.
And so this part of the molecule has some basic characteristics. While this phosphate group at the end this has some acidic characteristics. And what happens is they get stacked onto each other where the ribosephosphates alternate to form the backbone of this DNA molecule.
Nucleic Acids: Function & Structure - Video & Lesson Transcript | nickchinlund.info
You can see it right over here where you have a phosphate and a ribose and a phosphate and a ribose. And then you have the nitrogenous base forming part of the rung of the ladder. And the way that DNA stores information is, every one of these nitrogenous bases right over here this is adenine, it has a complimentary nitrogenous base on the other to complete that rung of the ladder. So adenine matches with thiamine and DNA and we'll see in future videos in RNA, it's a nitrogenous base known as urasil, and guanine matches with cytosine.
Don't worry too much about this now, we'll go into some depth in this in future videos when we talk about DNA and how information is stored in it.Nucleic Acids
But for the sake of this video, just appreciate that the monomer for a nucleic acid like DNA is a nucleotide. So monomer, and to be very clear, this would not be the only monomer, the analogous nucleotide in RNA, which stands for ribonucleic acid would be adenosine monophosphate right over here.
You can see the difference between the two that we have an oxygen right over here, and we don't have an oxygen right over here. That's why this is called deoxy, and that's why it's deoxyribonucleic acid.
You're missing one of those oxygens on your five carbon sugar. Today we know that there are two types of nucleic acids found in every living organism: Together they are responsible for passing an organism's traits to the next generations, including what it will look like and how their body will work. This seems incredible for a mere chemical that looks like a blob of clear jelly in a test tube.
Chemistry for Biologists: Nucleic acids
It's difficult to imagine chemicals as having a 'shape,' so let's look a bit more into it to try to understand how the 3D shape of nucleic acids comes about. Like other large organic molecules, nucleic acids are long chains made of individual, repeated units called monomers.
The particular name for the units of nucleic acids are called nucleotides and each contains three things: There are different nucleotides named according to the nitrogenous base they contain: DNA is made up of different sequences of: Nucleotides are able to form chains because the phosphate of one can attach to the sugar of the one above it, creating a 'sugar phosphate backbone' with the nitrogenous bases sticking out of the side. If you think of DNA as a ladder, with the sugar phosphate backbone being the sides of the ladder and the nitrogenous bases the rungs, then RNA would be a ladder cut down the middle.