India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
Pakistan and India are facing serious difficulties in their bilateral relations. Though they are not in a state of war, a virtual warlike situation exists. Analysis. Bilateral trade ties between India and Pakistan have undoubtedly remained hostage to the political vagaries of the relationship but. All efforts to normalize relations with it in the past have been shot down India publicly came to terms with Pakistan when then Prime Minister.
Pakistan since Independence has used Islam and the Islamic identity as its core narrative and has justified the use of Jihadi elements and militant outfits against India. Most contemporary writings on Pakistan acknowledge the presence of Jihadi and conservative ideology within Pakistan and significant influence on the Pak Army.
They also point out the fact that the Pak establishment is dominated by the Pak Army, which is not willing to change its anti —India policy. Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that it cannot afford to change its policy towards India. Successive military dictators as also PMs have used glorification of the idea of Pakistan and India as an enemy state to remain in power. In the process, Islamism gained predominance in Pak polity. Today, the Pak Army projects itself as the defender of not only Pak physical boundary but also the Pak ideology.
Even Pak authors point this out. He has highlighted the absence of the notion of nationhood amongst Pakistanis on account of diversity in ethno-linguistic, religious, cultural and traditional arenas. Hence it is not possible to do away with the various militant groups which are considered important assets. He had embarked on a Sunnization programme to keep himself in power.
Zia carried out a systematic and well-planned review of the judicial system and ensured the appointment of judges who were pro-Army and pro-Zia. Those who could create problems were sent as Governors.
He introduced Sharia benches in the High Courts and seats of these benches were reserved for trained ulema lawyers. The prosecution of the non-Muslims and minorities was carried out. He introduced the draconian Blasphemy laws. He made efforts to convert the Pak Army into an Islamized force.
Zia also started recruiting Maulvis into the Pak Army and gradually their status was raised. He also created the Directorate of Religious Instructions with the aim of educating the officer cadre of the Pak Army into the virtues of Islam. Thus a new generation of Pak Army is in position which considers that it is justified to employ Jihadi elements as a part of strategy.
It would be difficult to change their approach towards India. The Pak Army has allowed Hafiz Sayeed to float a political party, who is openly sharing platforms with Pak politicians and Ministers. The Pak Army maintains very close links with militant outfits, who spew venom against India.
It would not be wrong to say that the militant outfits are the unofficial army of Pakistan. Imran Khan is in no position to take decisions on this issue.
He could only read the script prepared by the Pak Army. Beyond this, it would be unrealistic to expect from the Pak PM who has come to power not on his own but on the crutches of the Pak Army.
They require more attention, however, if they are to reach their full potential. The two countries are culturally similar, sharing similar languages, norms and institutions. With care, those commonalities could be used by both countries to mitigate adversarial frameworks. This has been due to the legacy of a violent partition that witnessed inter-communal strife and, since then, the inability of various elected governments in Pakistan to fully control domestic and foreign policy.
The two countries have, consequently, fought several wars that ended with no real result or in victory of sorts to India. Neither country has benefitted in any concrete term from these wars; it could be argued, in fact, that they have only served to constrain the economic development of India and Pakistan, irrespective of the fact that India witnessed the elimination of the two-front threat posed by East and West Pakistan when East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh in Bilateral trade and commercial ties have remained in place between the two rivals despite their various ups and downs, however.
Partition could not, however, immediately remove or reduce cultural commonalities such as language, social norms, gastronomic tastes and other cultural ties. These divided families used their geographic locations to trade, sourcing products from both sides of the border and maintaining their cultural and familial ties. Analysis Bilateral trade ties between India and Pakistan have undoubtedly remained hostage to the political vagaries of the relationship but only in a limited fashion.
Articles on India-Pakistan relations
One indication of this is the fact that the two sides concluded fourteen trade agreements between and Inthe year the two countries went to war over Kashmir again, Indian banks continued to operate their branches in Pakistan. Following that war, however, and the degree of antipathy generated on both sides in the aftermath of the war, trade relations between the two countries all but came to a standstill for over eight years. The two countries came together again in and a protocol on resuming trade relations was signed in That trade was very limited, however, and conducted on a very small number of mutually agreed upon items.
There were, additionally, trade-related disagreements between India and Pakistan even when trade was conducted. Infor instance, India decided to devalue the rupee believing that Pakistan would do likewise.
India argued that the combination of higher raw jute prices, coupled with the devaluation of its currency, would price jute beyond its reach.Why West So Tilted Toward India. Great Analysis of India, Pakistan, America Relations.
Pakistan retaliated by imposing restrictions on the importation of some Indian manufactured goods. I regard it as highly unfortunate that, instead of facilitating the normal flow of trade between the two countries, the Government of India should have embarked on a boycott of trade with us. While fixation of the rate of currency is entirely a question for each country to decide with reference to its circumstance, trade is a matter of prices.
India, however, has taken the extraordinarily unfriendly step of boycotting trade with us.
No hope of improvement of Indo-Pak relations under Imran Khan
Pakistan had developed an import substitution policy in the s, effectively the creation of a manufacturing base. Bilateral trade was truncated, however, first by the war of and then the war. These two wars and, later, the civil unrest in Kashmir in the s had a very detrimental effect on bilateral trade because they introduced a military element into what had been, until then, a purely commercial paradigm.
They persuaded the precursor to the World Trade Organisation, the Generalised Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, to insert an India-Pakistan-specific special clause into the Text of the Generalised Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that relates to international trade to reflect this circumstance. Taking into account the exceptional circumstances arising out of the establishment of India and Pakistan as independent states and recognising the fact that they have long constituted an economic unit, the contracting parties agree that the provisions of this Agreement shall not prevent the two countries from entering into special arrangements with respect to the trade between them, pending the establishment of their mutual trade relations on a definitive basis.
The situation turned completely in the early s when, following the collapse of its strategic partner, the Soviet Union, and realising that it would need to enter fully into the international community if it were not to become a failed state, India embraced international trade with both arms and, subsequently, saw its economy grow rapidly.
This step was taken as part of the attempt by the two countries to lay the Kashmir issue to rest by the thirtieth anniversary of their independence. New Delhi terminated all air- and land-borne trade with Pakistan following the attacks on its Parliament in Decemberwhich it alleged were carried out by Pakistani-based militants.
- No hope of improvement of Indo-Pak relations under Imran Khan
- India-Pakistan Relations – Part Three: Economic and Cultural Aspects
- India–Pakistan relations
That imposition remained in force until A restrictive maritime trade regimen was also implemented. As a consequence, informal trade between the two countries began, with trade occurring via third parties like Dubai, albeit at increased cost.