Popes during the Age of Revolution - Wikipedia
The European Revolutions of and A Comparative Analysis here (it is reported that the German secret police [Stasi] files weighed 5, tons and In the pre period, the reforms of Pope Pius IX in Rome following his election . in Polish-German, Hungarian-Rumanian and Hungarian-Slovakian relations. From the time of the Reformation Anglo-Vatican relations have typically been seen as a Hamilton, the British minister to Florence, about the policies of Pope Pius IX. for in revolutions broke out over almost the whole of continental Europe. ¹ In the light of this it is remarkable to find that only a few years earlier the. The European revolutions of begin - Louis Philippe, Metternich, Europe, This present page is one of a series treating with themes unfolding during the . as Pope Pius IX in June , of an incumbent who soon thereafter followed . in relation to the position of the Kingdom of Hungary within the Austrian empire.
Napoleonic Italy[ edit ] In French Republican troops under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy, defeated the papal troops and occupied Ancona and Loreto.
Pius VI sued for peace. The price of persuading the French intruder to head north again, agreed in the Treaty of Tolentinowas a massive indemnity, the removal of many works of art from the Vatican collections and the surrender to France of Bologna, Ferrara and the Romagna.
However, on 28 December of that year, a popular French general was killed in a riot outside the French embassy in Rome, thus providing a new pretext furnished for invasion by the French.
French army units marched to Rome, entered it unopposed on and, proclaiming a Roman Republicdemanded of the Pope the renunciation of his temporal authority. Upon his refusal to do so, Pius VI was taken prisoner, and on February 20 was ultimately brought to the citadel of Valence in France where he died.
He negotiated the French Concordat of which reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the major religion of France and restored some of its civil status, removing it from the authority of the Pope. While the Concordat restored some ties between France and the papacy, the agreement was slanted largely in favor of the state; the balance of church-state relations had tilted firmly in Napoleon Bonaparte 's favor.
Claims that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pope Pius VII during the ceremony in order to avoid subjecting himself to the authority of the pontiff are apocryphal ; in fact, the coronation procedure had been agreed upon in advance.
But by relations had deteriorated. The pope annoyed Napoleon by refusing to sanction the annulment of his brother Jerome's marriage and, perhaps more significantly, by not bringing the ports of the papal states into the Continental System. In the following month another section of the papal states the Marches was annexed to the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy.
Napoleon followed up these affronts by annexing in all that remains of the papal states, including the city of Rome, and by announcing that the pope no longer has any form of temporal authority. At the end of the s, the ambitious King Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia wanted to lead a war for the liberation of Italy from under Austrian control.
The Pope and the Revolutions: the Papacy's evolution in the 19th century
However, Pius IX would change his mind and decide to stop fighting against the Habsburg Empire, a large catholic state and a very old ally of the Papacy. This is why Pius would forbid his volunteers to continue fighting alongside Piedmont, a decision that actually meant the Papacy officially disavowed the Italian national movement.
So, in the s, the Papacy re-launches an old practice: The visits were nothing more than a way to maintain a firm connection between Rome and the catholic national churches;it was, in a way, an instrument of centralization. The ultramontanism philosophy, arguing for a centralization of the Catholic Church and an unconditioned fidelity towards the Pope, developed in France in the beginning of the 19thcentury. With the same centralization in mind, the Papacy started organising, for different important events, large reunions of catholic priests and bishops.
The first such gathering took place inwhen the Dogma of Immaculate Conception was proclaimed.
Pope Pius IX and Italy
Then, inmore than The Vatican Council and the dogma of papal infallibility The s were a hard time for the Pope, a time of a deep crisis, having already lost the Papal States in favour of the Italian national movement. Anger over long-standing and suffocating forms of pol itical repression was the single most important impetus in both years, as demonstrated by the fact that middle class intellectuals as opposed to starving peasants or urban workers played the key leadership role in almost all of the affected regions Poland in and perhaps Albania in are quasi-exceptions in both and In the lands most deeply affected in both years, the regimes were characterized by rigid censorship, bans on political opposition and extensive secret police networ ks.
Many of these factors are too well known as part of the key background to to require any extended comment here it is reported that the German secret police [Stasi] files weighed 5, tons and would have stretched for miles, perhaps giving even American Federal Bureau of Investigation head J. Edgar Hoover a run for the paranoid sweepstakesbut the striking similarity to requires attention.
Rudolf Stadelmann, in his The heaviest grievance of the nation remained the suppression of the freedom of expression. What caused a deep and apparently implacable rage against the police and military state was constant petty pestering by gendarmes and border officials, the secretaries and the bureaucrats who harassed individuals.
The European Revolutions of 1848
This was called to mind da ily by the blanked passages of the censor in the newspaper, by the never-ending measures of conscientious state officials and teachers. In terms of numbers there were actually not so many, a few hundred perhaps who sat in prisons or were involved in degrading trials.
But they were all known and their cause was taken to everyone's heart [shades of Havel and Walesa, now the presidents of Czechoslovakia and Poland]. If Austria and Prussia. Economic grievances were long-simmering and chronic in eastern Europe during the pre period, while the economic background to the revolts was especially rooted in the acute crisis of Inthe economic crisis resulted from the lingering effects of the unprecedented and massive agricultural failures ofwhich in turn set off a serious industrial-commercial crisis as high food prices devastated people's ability to buy anything else.
One third of the population of western Germany was on relief byover a quarter of a million died of starvation and disease in Prussian Silesia and Austrian Galicia, and food riots became common in much of Europe by The nationalistic grievances in and were significant but took a back seat to political and economic travail: In lingering resentment over Russian domination clearly played some role in Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia, if not much of one in Albania, Bulgaria and Rumania, and German nationalism again played a key role in a once-more divided Germany.