Gender Roles - AP World History
Classical Greece And Rome Chapter 4 study guide by A_Tsui includes 10 What sentence best describes both Roman and Chinese gender relations?. Here, Paul Chrystal explores the Roman relationship with sex and shares An ancient Roman relief shows a midwife delivering a baby. There is history of recorded same-sex unions around the world. Some early Western societies integrated same-sex relationships. The first Roman emperor to have married a man.
He was to educate, protect, love, and provide a role model for his eromenoswhose reward for him lay in his beauty, youth, and promise. The roots of Greek pederasty lie in the tribal past of Greece, before the rise of the city-state as a unit of political organization.
These tribal communities were organized according to age groups. When it came time for a boy to embrace the age group of the adult and to "become a man," he would leave the tribe in the company of an older man for a period of time that constituted a rite of passage. This older man would educate the youth in the ways of Greek life and the responsibilities of adulthood.
Greek boys no longer left the confines of the community, but rather paired up with older men within the confines of the city. These men, like their earlier counterparts, played an educational and instructive role in the lives of their young companions; likewise, just as in earlier times, they shared a sexual relationship with their boys. Penetrative sex, however, was seen as demeaning for the passive partner, and outside the socially accepted norm.
It was the duty of the adult man to court the boy who struck his fancy, and it was viewed as socially appropriate for the younger man to withhold for a while before capitulating to his mentor's desires.
This waiting period allowed the boy to ensure that his suitor was not merely interested in him for sexual purposes, but felt a genuine emotional affection for him and was interested in assuming the mentor role assigned to him in the pederastic paradigm.
To love a boy below the age of twelve was considered inappropriate, but no evidence exists of any legal penalties attached to this sort of practice.
- Han Dynasty China and Imperial Rome, 300 BCE–300 CE
- Comparison between Roman and Han Empires
- Homosexuality in ancient Greece
Traditionally, a pederastic relationship could continue until the widespread growth of the boy's body hair, when he is considered a man. Thus, the age limit for the younger member of a pederastic relationship seems to have extended from 12 to about 17 years of age. It was an important element in civil life, the military, philosophy and the arts.
In the military[ edit ] Main article: Homosexuality in the militaries of ancient Greece The Sacred Band of Thebesa separate military unit reserved only for men and their beloved, is usually considered the prime example of how the ancient Greeks used love between soldiers in a troop to boost their fighting spirit.
The Thebans attributed to the Sacred Band the power of Thebes for the generation before its fall to Philip II of Macedonwho was so impressed with their bravery during battle, he erected a monument that still stands today on their gravesite.
He also gave a harsh criticism of the Spartan views of the band: For men of the same tribe little value one another when dangers press; but a band cemented by friendship grounded upon love is never to be broken. Such relationships were documented by many Greek historians and in philosophical discourses, as well as in offhand remarks such as Philip II of Macedon's recorded by Plutarch demonstrates: MeleagerAchillesAristomenesCimonand Epaminondas.
Women in ancient Rome - Wikipedia
He answered their request, bringing his lover to watch. Leading the charge against the Eretrians he brought the Chalcidians to victory at the cost of his own life. The Chalcidians erected a tomb for him in the marketplace in gratitude. It is said that one of the most noble things is to give one's own life to save their lover. Even apart from legal status, daughters seem no less esteemed within the Roman family than sons, though sons were expected to ensure family standing by following their fathers into public life.
Technically, the couple had to be old enough to consent, but the age of consent was 12 for girls and 14 for boys, though in practice boys seem to have been on average five years older.
Among the elite, 14 was the age of transition from childhood to adolescence,  but a betrothal might be arranged for political reasons when the couple were too young to marry,  and in general noble women married younger than women of the lower classes. Most Roman women would have married in their late teens to early twenties.
An aristocratic girl was expected to be a virgin when she married, as her young age might indicate. After arranging his daughter's first two marriages, Cicero disapproved — rightly, as it turned out — of her choice to marry the unreliable Dolabellabut found himself unable to prevent it.
Comparison between Roman and Han Empires - Wikiversity
Children usually took the father's name. In the Imperial period, however, children might sometimes make their mother's family name part of theirs, or even adopt it instead. Pudicitia chastity was a goddess of feminine purity, and was worshipped by Roman women. Only those who were virgins were allowed to enter the temple. In Roman houses it was common for men and women to each have their own cubicula, allowing potential for them to engage in sex lives separate from each other. While it was expected that women should only have sexual relations with their husbands, it was common for men to have many sexual partners throughout his life.
History of same-sex unions
For example, Julius Caesar's first wife, Pompeiahighlights this point well as she attempted to have private relations with Publius Clodius. Julius Caesar's mother, Aurelia, monitored Pompeia's actions and prevented their private meetings.
The mere possibility of Pompeia committing adultery caused Caesar to divorce her. This general campaign to improve family dynamics began in 18—17 BC. Additionally, Augustus enforced the divorce and punishment of adulterous wives. Women under his rule could be punished in the courts for adultery and banished. This shifted a woman's body and relationships from being private, to become a public matter that could be regulated. Therefore, the palace was secured and driven by this idea that women would be returned to their proper places as chaste wives and mothers, and thus household order would be restored.
Augustus went so far as to punish and exile his own daughter, Julia, for engaging in extramarrital affairs. If Manilia is not a defendant, she'll be the plaintiff; she will herself frame and adjust the pleadings; she will be ready to instruct Celsus himself how to open his case, and how to urge his points. The historian Valerius Maximus devotes a section of his work On Memorable Deeds and Speeches to women who conducted cases on their own behalf, or on behalf of others.
One of these, Maesia Sentinas is identified by her origin in the town of Sentinumand not, as was customaryby her relation to a man. The independent Maesia spoke in her own defense, and was acquitted almost unanimously after only a short trial because she spoke with such strength and effectiveness. Since these characteristics were considered masculine, however, the historian opined that under her feminine appearance, she had a "virile spirit," and thereafter she was called "the Androgyne.
An edict was consequently enacted that prohibited women from bringing claims on behalf of others, on the grounds that it jeopardized their pudicitia, the modesty appropriate to one's station. Despite this specific restriction, there are numerous examples of women taking informed actions in legal matters in the Late Republic and Principateincluding dictating legal strategy to their advocate behind the scenes.
If a pater familias died intestatethe law required the equal division of his estate amongst his children, regardless of their age and sex. A will that did otherwise, or emancipated any family member without due process of law, could be challenged. They were not in charge of domestic duties like cleaning, but rather were occupied with staying fit and bearing strong-bodied children. Not only did young Spartan girls undergo public education, but they also competed in gymnastics, wresting, and foot and horse races.
Although women were not allowed to speak at the public assembly, women were still able to indirectly influence the politics by talking to their husbands and having him deliver their thoughts. Sparta society was still largely patriarchal, but it was exceedingly less so than the Han Dynasty and Athens. A statue of a spartan girl running which shows how a woman was expected to be fit and strong.How Couples Sleep Together - Cut
A spartan woman with a bow and arrow which shows the military training she received. Women living in the Han Dynasty were taught to be submissive, beginning with their father arranging a marriage for them. The mother had little to no say in who her daughter married, but rather the grandfather could override the father's decision if he did not approve of the family she would be marrying into.
To encourage all fathers to marry their daughters off, there was a law created that increased the poll tax for unmarried women between the ages of 15 to While men could divorce their wives for numerous reasons, it was very uncommon and difficult for a woman to initiate divorce. However, if the husband died, a widow could choose to remarry and to whom. Along with it being expected that a woman would marry, it was also counted upon that the wife would have children.
They hoped for a male who would be able to carry on the family name. While the sons were given a portion of property, girls were excluded from this until they were to be married and then, as part of their dowry, they would receive some land.
Ban Zhao, a woman known for her work called Lessons for Women, wrote about how men were strong and strict, and women, as their loyal wives, needed to respect them and obey. Just as Ban Zhao wrote, women belonged to men.
From the time they were born they had the job of serving men, beginning with their father, then their husband and lastly their son. Although a son was taught to have great respect for his mother, he was viewed as the head of the house if anything were to happen to the father. Chinese women's main job was to be good wives and mothers, which included cooking, sewing and helping with farming.
However, if a woman was to be widowed, she often had to support the family, and this meant woman would take up a job like weaving or selling items in a market. The only time when women were not viewed as being inferior in society was in the imperial family, especially the empress, who was allowed to give orders to males and publicly humiliate them.
While women played a small role in public affairs and were viewed as subordinate to men throughout their life, Chinese women influenced society by bearing children and raising them to be smart and respectful citizens. A painting of women from the Han dynasty playing music which shows how women were expected to be quiet, graceful and submissive. The Persian Empire Pourandokht was the first queen of Persia, which shows how women in Persia could be very involved in politics and the ruling of the civilization.
Unlike any other civilizations during this time period, Persian women were viewed as a very valuable asset to Persian society and experienced large amount of equality in almost all aspects of life, including military, business, religion, ruling and marriage. Unlike the other civilizations that expected women to marry and have children, it was not uncommon for a woman to never marry or have children, and this was not looked down upon. If a woman did decide to marry, she was in control of who her spouse would be, and marriage was to be centered on the core values of love, truth, and righteousness.
Unlike other civilizations where only the man could divorce the wife, in Persian society, a wife could divorce her husband as well.
If a woman decided to have children, she would have a paid maternity leave, so it did not interfere with her working. It was also not unusual for women to fight. In fact, there are accounts of strong, capable women fighting in the Sassanid army. One of the great commanders of Persian history was a woman by the name of Pantea Arteshbod. She was the commander of Persian soldiers and also made sure law and order was kept after the conquest of Babylon.
Women could also own property, which allowed them to buy and sell land, and they were permitted to manage their assets. Women also had a slew of jobs they could choose from if they decided they wanted to work, and oftentimes they received the same pay as a male did.
Lastly, women were involved in helping to rule Persia, which is shown by the fact that a queen could take the throne if the king died and the prince was still a minor. The first queen of Persia was Pourandokht, and she is described as wise and a strong leader.