Dr Masuma Hasan: Akbar and the Women in his Empire | Pakistan Horizon
Salima Sultan Begum (Urdu: سلیمہ سلطان بیگم) (February 23, – January 2, ) was . Salima and Bairam Khan's short-lived marriage did not produce any children. and executed the assassination of Akbar's faithful counselor and close friend, Abu'l Fazl. . "Jodha Akbar: Rajat Tokas earns the title of Akbar!". Wives, Mariam-uz-Zamani Begum(Jodha Bai) Ruqaiya Sultan . In November of , Akbar married his first cousin, Ruqaiya Sultan Begum at Kabul. Princess. Akbar married his cousin Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, daughter of his paternal uncle . Akbar on the advice of his Finance Minister Todar Mall, introduced loans against small He married several Hindu Princess including Jodha Bai, from the house of Akbar also continued to maintain excellent diplomatic relationship with the.
Ajmer brought him the doorway to Rajputana. He also claimed the Gwalior fort from the Sur Rulers. He conquered Gondwana in from the minor ruler Raja Vir Narayan.
On being defeated Durgavati committed suicide while Vir Narayan was slain during the capture of Chauragarh fortress. Having consolidated his supremacy over most of north and central India, Akbar turned his attention towards Rajputana, which presented a formidable threat to his supremacy.
He had already established his rule over Ajmer and Nagor. Beginning inAkbar started his quest to conquer Rajputana. He employed force as well as diplomatic tactics to make the Rajput rulers submit to his Rule. Most accepted his sovereignty except the Sisodia ruler of Mewar, Udai Singh. This presented a problem for Akbar on his designs to establish unquestioned supremacy over the region.
InAkbar attacked the Chittorgarh fort in Mewar that represented a key strategic importance towards establishing rule in Rajputana. Udai Singh was banished to the Hills of Mewar. He was the last of the Rajput defenders and fought till his heroic end in the Battle of Haldighati in Following his victory over the Rajputana, Akbar brought in GujaratKabulKashmirSindhBengal and Kandahar within the Mughal territory.
InAkbar set out to conquer Deccan territories. He faced opposition to his authority in Ahmadnagar and attacked the Deccan state in Chand Bibi, the regent queen offered formidable opposition, but was forced to concede defeat ultimately having to give up Berar.Manisha Yadav Sebagai Salima Sultan Begum
He brought about several changes in existing policies to establish an environment of uniform opportunities to people irrespective of religion. The Emperor himself was the supreme governor of the empire. He retained ultimate judicial, legislative and administrative power above anyone else.
He was assisted in efficient governance by several ministers — Vakil, chief adviser to the King over all matters; Diwan, minister in charge of finance; Sadar-i-sadur, religious advisor to the King; Mir Bakshi, the one who maintained all records; Daroga-i-Dak Chowki and Muhtasib were appointed to oversee proper enforcement of law as well as the postal department.
The entire empire was divided into 15 Subas, each province being governed by a Subadar along with other regional post mirroring that in the center.
The Subas were divided into Sarkars which were further divided into Parganas. The head of the Sarkar was a Faujdar and that of a Pargana was a Shikdar. Echa Pargana consisted of several villages which were governed by a Muqaddam, a Patwari and a Chowkidar, along with a panchayat.
He introduced the Mansabdari system to effectively organize the Military. The Mansabdars were responsible for maintaining discipline and impart training to the soldiers. There were 33 ranks of Mansabdars with 10, to 10 soldiers under their command according to rank. Akbar also introduced the custom of taking roll of the soldiers and branding of horses.
Ruqaiya Sultan Begum - Wikipedia
The emperor maintained ultimate control over the military and excelled in the ability to enforce discipline among his troops. Land revenue was the chief source of income for the Mughal Government and Akbar introduced several reforms in the revenue department. The land was divided into four classes according to their productivity - Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar.
Bigha was the unit of land measurement and land revenue was paid either in cash or in kind. Akbar on the advice of his Finance Minister Todar Mall, introduced loans against small interest to the farmers and he also granted remission of revenues in case of natural calamities like draughts or floods.
Akbar the Great Biography - Facts, Life History of The Mughal Emperor
He also issued special instruction to the revenue collectors to be friendly with the farmers. All these reforms greatly increased productivity and revenue of the Mughal Empire, leading to prosperous subjects with abundance of food.
Akbar introduced reforms in judicial system as well and for the first time, Hindu customs and laws were referred to in case of Hindu subjects.
The Emperor was the highest authority in Law and the power to give capital punishment rested solely with him. The major social reform introduced by Akbar was the abolition of the Pilgrimage Tax for Hindus in as well as the Jazia tax imposed on the Hindu subjects. He discouraged child marriage and encouraged widow remarriage.
Diplomacy Akbar was probably the first Islamic ruler in India who sought stable political alliances through matrimony. He strengthened the alliances by welcoming male relatives of his wives as part of his court and bestowing them with important roles in his administration.
Akbar the Great
Political significance of these alliances was far-reaching for the Mughal Empire in securing strong loyalty of these dynasties. This practice brought the Hindu and Muslim nobilities in close contact securing a better secular environment for the empire.
Akbar and the Uzbeks of Central Asia entered into a treaty of mutual respect under which the Mughals were not to interfere in Badakshan and Balkh regions and the Uzbeks would stay away from Kandahar and Kabul.
His attempt to make alliance with the newly arrived Portuguese tradesman proved futile with the Portuguese refuting his friendly advances. He was in regular correspondence with Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. His contingent of pilgrims to Mecca and Medina were warmly welcomed by the Ottoman Sultan and the Mughal Ottoman trade flourished during his rule.
Akber was profoundly religious himself, yet he never sought to enforce his own religious views on anyone; be it prisoners of war, or Hindu wives or the common people in his kingdom. If he ran through four tutors during his childhood, it is difficult to believe, as is often claimed, that Akbar was utterly unlettered.
He had a library of 24, books in Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Hindustani, Latin and Greek and was read to every evening. He always led from the front. He was expanding his empire in a land which was as unfamiliar to him as it had been to his elders. He learnt as he conquered and ruled. In peace time they existed within the constraints of religious dogma and ritual, accentuated among the Hindus by the rigid caste system. Others were members of the harems of the men whom Akbar had defeated, like that of poor Baz Bahadur of Malwawhose beloved Roopmati was a celebrated beauty who poisoned herself when Malwa fell.
Above all, there were his mother and his royal wives. Akbar loved his mother, Hamida Begum, respected her and sought her advice on important mattes.
After all, she was only 15 years older than him, having been married to Humayun when she was only 14 years old. His respect for her can be gauged from the fact that, on occasion, he helped to carry her palanquin himself.
When she was dying, he abandoned his journey towards his rebellious and incorrigible son, Salim later Jahangir to be at her bedside. After she died, inAkbar was devastated and stricken with grief.
Also, he held his aunt, Gulbadan Begum in high esteem, sending her on a well-endowed pilgrimage to Mecca and holding a celebration, when she returned after seven years, in which he participated. The Mughal princesses were very accomplished women. Inwhen they were both only nine years old, Akbar was married off to his first cousin, Ruqaiya Sultan Begum Perhaps she was the only woman he truly loved. Although she was childless, Akbar always showed her regard and affection and she played an important role at his court.
His second royal wife was Salima Sultan Begumanother first cousin, whom he married in She was the widow of Bairam Khan and was three years older than him.
- History Of Akbar
- Salima Sultan Begum
- Ruqaiya Sultan Begum
She maintained her own private library and was a poet who wrote under the pseudonym of Makhfi the hidden one. Akbar valued her intelligence and wisdom and consulted her on matters of state.
She is also said to have been an accomplished woman. Certainly, she was a clever businesswoman, who engaged actively in trade in silk and spices, owned ships which carried pilgrims to Mecca and amassed a vast personal fortune. He is credited to have married seven times. Akbar seems not to have had reservations about a woman holding public office.
After he got rid of Bairam Khan, he was advised at court by his wet nurse, Maham Anga. When he defeated his half brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakimwho rebelled against him several times, he left Kabul in the hands of his half sister, Bakht-un-Nisa Begumin Though he pardoned his half brother, she remained official governor of Kabul until the death of Mirza Hakim.