BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Predators and their prey
Lynx have always been valued highly by trappers for their thick, soft fur from federal agencies to conserve lynx (and snowshoe hare) habitat, until finally, in the. snowshoe hare populations, most of the lynxes may be forced into transient status. cycle, a lynx may need to travel extensively to meet its nutritional requirements .. Protection, the Habitat Conservation Trust Fund (HCTF) and the British Co-. You can find data related to the Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare but I would classify predator/prey relationships as 'ecological' and therefore I'd look in.
As parties meet to discuss proactive approaches to furbearer and trapline management, they need to build on the following forces that should bring trappers and foresters together Trappers understand that the future of trapping is not in jeopardy, as a whole, as result of logging activities. Sustainable forest management by definition means the landbase continues to grow productive forests, although the amounts of early seral stages are normally greater than in naturally disturbed forests.
However, there is generally no explicit requirement to maintain habitat for individual furbearer species, and the need exists to examine the spatial and fine-scale habitat requirements for many of these species for planning processes. In many ways, the most extensive limitations to trapping continues to be land-use decisions designating protected areas with limited effective trapper involvement. The impact of timber harvest on forest furbearers varies among species and harvesting practices, at both the stand level and the overall forest landscape patterns produced from forest operations.
Very simply, predators depend on various prey that may or may not respond favorably to logging operations.
Relationship with the forests - Fur Institute of Canada Fur Institute of Canada
For example, hare and grouse increase with logging, which is advantageous to predators, such as lynx, coyote and fox. The wolf depends on deer, moose and beaver that all do well in landscapes with early successional forest habitats and winter range.
Marten populations generally decline after logging due to changes in prey abundance and accessibility as well as the loss of overhead cover hunting and denning habitat.
These effects can be enhanced or mitigated by the secondary benefits of increased access for trappers during harvesting and subsequent site treatments used to meet tree regeneration requirements.
Unfortunately, requirements for many other furbearer species are not well understood. Trappers rightfully can claim that they are, in part, stewards of the land in relation to their trapline. The authority for a business to remove furbearers from the forest is no different than the right of other resource interests to extract other resources such as wood products.
No one person owns the forest that is held in a custodial trust by government. The principle of first occupancy not being affected by other resource interests is well established in other resource sectors. Unfortunately, government agencies tended to ignore this principle during their long-term allocation of wood from designated forest lands and even more vividly in the allocation of mineral and petroleum exploration and development activities.
Sustainable furbearer management carries all the hallmarks of sustainable forest management but differs in that rotation ages are much shorter for furbearers and that their habitat is nested within forest management regimes. However responsibilities are always associated with rights.
Trappers need to demonstrate a much greater ability to document the distribution and abundance of furbearers within their trapline, their furbearer management approach, as well as their clear long term commitment to sustainable fur management three ingredients of any successful stewardship program that maintains populations of furbearers in sufficient abundance to sustain harvest.
In practice, the forest industry is the major steward of the forest. This sector has become committed to demonstrating sustainable forest management by assuming a high proportion of forest conservation costs with a tripling of their management budgets during the s and by becoming a large employer of biologists.
Canadian forest managers potentially have a unique opportunity to retain the diversity of species throughout their natural ranges. The establishment of protected areas is now seen as an integral component of a landscape level sustainable forest management strategy. The adoption of voluntary certification processes by the forest industry has accelerated the need for measurable biodiversity objectives, but often constrained by the lack of appropriate inventories. Historically, resource agencies have attempted to manage habitat on public land for a few key game species and those species of concern vulnerable, threatened or endangered.
The recognition of the importance to conserve all species has grown with the signing of the Convention on Biological Diversity. However, budgets of the responsible management agencies have dwindled during the past 20 years, reducing their capacity to manage.
While furbearers are particularly important to this monitoring, as they are permanent residents with small ranges occupying various levels of the food chain, few are currently used as indicator species.
Insisting on recognizing the importance of all furbearers is critical as evidenced by the current focus on the status of pine marten, a species that tends to inhabit moist coniferous and mixedwood forests in the later stages of succession. Trappers should be an integral component with wildlife agencies in both monitoring and working with forest companies to implement the necessary creative approaches to retain sufficient marten habitat to support populations abundant enough to sustain harvests.
The National Forest Strategy clearly defines the extensive array of policy and legal commitments across Canada that recognizes the economic and social importance of trapping as well as the retention of furbearers and their habitat.
The National Forest Strategy was developed and endorsed by a spectrum of governments, industry, labour and conservation interests. For the first time, the new Strategy to recognizes the importance of incorporating trapper interests.
The delivery of the Strategy requires strong participation from all interests. In addition, the forest industry has adopted auditing of sustainable forest management under certification programs that are intended to ensure appropriate public consultation which should include the maintenance of furbearer populations and associated habitat.
Where can I find biological time series data? - Open Data Stack Exchange
Meeting in the Middle Sustainable management of furbearers and wood products is based on similar principles, planning and stewardship commitments. Despite similarities between the two historic forest-based industries, and the clear support and opportunities to achieve proactive furbearer management, there is little evidence of cooperation. While the necessary ingredients are largely in place, what is missing? Equally, is the willingness to meet in the middle. With clear policy and legislative commitments to retain the integrity of forests for all forest values and associated sustainable use, how can the various interests ensure proactive furbearer conservation in forest management integrated with sustainable trapping programs?
All managers have a role: Each manager should consider the following steps as considerations in building a proactive furbearer management program. The sum of these roles is not only additive in achieving sustainable furbearer management, they also improve sustainable forest management at the operational level. Working together in a cooperative manner builds effective partnerships.
All of these steps are doable, but presently, are carried out sporadically across Canada.
Predators and their prey
Conducting one or more of these steps in isolation does not build the momentum needed to make real change. Trappers As stewards of a natural resource, there are many rewards and many responsibilities. The manner in which you discharge these responsibilities on a year-round basis establishes an important public image of trapping within your community.
During the past four centuries, it has established a record of sustainable resource management with the maintenance of all furbearer species across their traditional nonagricultural range.
It is imperative you be a knowledgeable advocate for furbearers and conservation practices, practice conservation using proper trapping techniques, and understand the extensive policy and legislative safeguards.
And, as an advocate of the resource, you must be visible and provide needed trapping services to others on a yearround basis.Lynx and the Hare Population Activity
As stewards, your responsibilities must include intimate knowledge of your trapping area, the amount and distribution of furbearer habitat and relative population trends, and, on registered traplines, the development of a long-term management plan.
These responsibilities are not as easy to achieve on private lands with open trapping systems, but can be achieved through collaboration between trappers and involvement in developing land-based plans. In either case, this means: Without this information as the basis of a management plan, trappers should not expect equal recognition at the land-use planning table. Build bridges, not barriers. Work with them in building your management plan.
The net economic gain from wildlife can equal or exceed that from timber harvesting over a full rotation period. Timber harvest will have both positive and negative impacts on habitats and the distribution of furbearers. Your goals can be met if you: Public consultation meetings can only partially address your issues.
With forest companies undergoing certification processes, you should meet privately with forest officials to resolve issues. Cooperatively Building Your Furbearer Management Plan The abundance and diversity of furbearers within the forest is primarily determined by the available habitat and existing forest structure.
Why we're sequencing the genomes of Canada's iconic species
However, this direction may be of limited value within specific trapping areas affected by natural disturbances, logging or other major human activities. To cooperatively develop a management plan, the forest company representative and trapper must therefore: The following is a simple example of the ingredients within a management plan often used as a basis in determining compensation to trappers. This approach is particularly useful in demonstrating the economic value of wildlife over a forest management rotation period e.
It is important to recognize the information is for marten on an average trapping area within the Boreal forest. Average densities and preferred forest habitat types vary extensively across Canada. Determination of sustainable marten harvest at one different trapping rates: Snowshoe hare populations, for example, oscillate from 5 to 5, hares per square kilometer over a ten-year cycle.
Forest Company Officials While recognizing the logistical difficulties in maintaining working arrangements with trappers, the success in managing furbearer habitat and ensuring sustainable fur harvests may be your best local indicator of achieving sustainable forest management.
This is an indicator that can only become more central in future certification efforts. Steps required by planners, foresters and managers therefore should include the following factors: Trappers have earned your respect with a history of over years of fur management.
Recognizing there have been periods of local over-harvesting, most traplines in most jurisdictions in Canada are now managed sustainably. Trappers should be considered as colleagues who can provide a variety of services, share intimate knowledge of local areas and issues, and be an important communication link to local communities.
It has developed a highly complex food-stockpiling strategy across widely scattered sites that keeps the bird alive through the winter breeding season. Each Canada jay can retrieve thousands of saliva-coated food caches each season by memory and pattern recognition —all hard-wired by its brain structure and encoded by its genome. Nature and nurture Long before Canada was a country, early accounting ledgers of the Hudson Bay Company show the Canada lynx and the snowshoe hare were in an obligate relationship.
The two animals share identical geographic range, covering the Canadian boreal forest. Deduced from historical fur harvest records, hare and lynx populations were found to oscillate in tightly linked year cycles. The genomes of the lynx and the hare can enlighten researchers on how the changing environment induces hormones and contributes to the cyclical declines in reproductive fitness in the hare population.
The genetic changes encoding the environmental sensors that underlie seasonal coat colour changes in the snowshoe hareamong other physiological and environmental relationships, will be revealed. Life's code The genome provides cells with directions like a blueprint, or orchestral score, for all aspects of development throughout the life of the organism. Humans inherit half of their DNA from each parent, as they did from their parents, and so on, right back to the origin of Homo sapiens.
The genomic information embedded in this DNA ties together the millions of species of Charles Darwin's tree of life. A pair of Canada jays feed their nestlings in Algonquin Park, Ontario.
Medical or pharmaceutical treatments increasingly target specific features of a diseasesuch as the proteins a cell expresses on its surface. By definition, genome sequencing provides far better coverage of a genome's genetic markers than earlier technologies. We will be sequencing whales and trout, bear and sheep, maple trees and fungus, in order to discover genomic DNA bar codes —DNA markers covering all the cell's chromosomes —that are important for selection and adaptation, and can be used in breeding and conservation.
Gift to science I teach my own students that as some applications of genomic science are becoming rather effortless, we are now only limited by our creativity.
To encourage such creativity, we believe that the first crack at studying a given new genome sequence should be made by researchers who best understand the organism's unique biological, cultural, economic, societal and historical role. For CanSeq, we will sequence the genomes of organisms brought forward by Canadian researchers. We believe that those same scientists can best harness the genome sequence information for our country —and for the world. These experiences will influence decisions for future projects, including those related to human disease.