If you ever meet again traduction

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Artist: Timbaland & Magoo Album: Under Construction Part II Song: I Got Luv 4 Ya I remember those days when I was holdin back If We Ever Meet Again. 2. Key words: actor network theory, traduction, trahison, faithful representative, perform. . Simiiarly, if you ask me about this thing called 'actor-network theory', would it be better for me Again the patient is arrayed on an exami nation table and rendered open for Eggs and the sperm meet each other for in vitro fertilisation. For even if we did not want the war, we now have to deal with its Shortly before this ultimatum ran out, the Security Council once again met Mr Blix in the presence of the Now, more than ever, we need multilateral fora which ensure that . As Minister for Foreign Affairs, I have made a point of meeting my.

And it has frequently been told off for doi ng so. Told off for 'dehumanising' the human. But this Californian story, one that is told by Charis Cussins, 9 tackles the problem in a different way: And argues not only that it is not necessarily 'inhumane' to treat people as obi ects, but also that treating humans as objects may be vital to the construction of subjectivity.

The story runs so. In California many women - and men too - attend clinics for treatment for infertility. Some of these treatments are complex and high-tech, for instance, as with in vitro fertilisation IVF.

A woman who ends up going in for IVF generally follows a complex trajectory which goes through four stages. Each of these has to do with objectification. Stage one is a pelvic exam involving all the indignities of a gynaecological exam: Conversation with the patient on the examining table changes character so that here internal reproductive organs become the focus of attention.

This change is choreographed by the phyii cian's, nurse's and patient's co-ordinated positionings, as well as by the swabbing and gloving and placing of the speculum.

These mundane steps that render the body and the instruments compatible are at the heart of objectification Cussins: Stage two is an ultra-sound examination.

Again the patient is arrayed on an exami nation table and rendered open for inspection, though this time an inspection which looks for ovul ation, ovari an cysts, pregnancy, and for foltt iles.

This is an in i pectton which, by techni i al means, distinguishes and characteri ses further bodily parts and processes. Here there is more objectification. Stage three is diagnostic surgery. Here the patient is anaesthetised and in one version a laparoscope is inserted into a small incision in the abdominal wall. A laparoscope is a small lens on the end of a thin tube which generates visualisations that may be seen on TV monitors.

These are representations of the state of organs such as the ovaries, the fallopian tubes and the uterus and may indicate to the surgeon that surgery is appropriate, either to correct some pathology, or to remove eggs. Note that since the patient is unioni cious she plays no active role. Her objectification is carried out on, and in the presence of, her body, but not her consciousness. Cussins also notes that the body is partly removed from itself: The uterus and ovaries and tubes are represented sui generis, as it were, on the monitor, floating apart from the context of the rest of the body and the whole person Cussins: In stage four the creation of an array of organs and processes outside the body of the patient goes one step further.

For now, in the embryology laboratory, the body of the woman has disappeared altogether. Instead there are obi ects present which "beiong" to her body, and that of the donor. Eggs and the sperm meet each other for in vitro fertilisation.

And there are frozen embryos. But such physical separation from the body is overcome by what Cussins calls "an ontology of connectedness between the body parts and patients". For it is all an integral part of a traj ectory which will, if all goes well, lead back to a "normal pregnancy": Thus the eggs and embryos belong to the patient.

Or, more precisely, they are made to belong to the patient in a carefully constructed economy of care and connectedness generated by and within the laboratory. And the bottom line? The bottom line is this. Under certain circumstances - most noiably those of a successfiil pregnancy - this process of objectification, of turning the patient into an array of objects that are, at least in some instances, disembodied, intersects positively with construction of the subj ectivi ty of the patient: Not that there is any necessity in this.

For the objectifications involved in attempts to secure pregnancy that later turn out to have been unsuccessful may not be so integrated. Indeed, may be bitterly resented by the patient as incursions or intrusions into her identity as a human being.

Objectifications which do not coniribute to what Cussins calls a "long range self". She cites actor-network writers. But she also cites symbolic interactionists, ethnomethodologists, and feminist writers from STS and cultural studies. So perhaps I should not be discussing her work here at all. It "belongs" just as much in these other traditions as in actor -network theory.

But then again, the question of ownership is not very important in a translation model, is it? A matter of ontological connectedness. At any rate, from the point of view of the 'principles of actor-network theory' whatever these might be Cussins' story indeed performs a lot of differences, differences in transl ation. To put it differently, it shows an abundant concern with noise, with things that do not fit together very well into single namttves.

Thus she shows an inierist in inioniisiency: All ofwhich differs, shall we say, from the ways in which most actor-network stories were told in Paris in the s. What should I say about this? One answer might be that there was not so much room for inconsistency in 's actor-network studies. Let me try to say it more carefully.

These studi es had plenty of room for inconsistency, for things that did not fit. But things that did not fit were tackled in a particular way. They were tackled as matters to be controlled, limited, mastered. To be "drawn together", 10 centred. It's possible to note this, and raise eyebrows about it in a variety of ways.

Or with the Lyotardian heterogeneous, the unassimilable. For the idea that transiation is also a beirayal is built into the charier of actor-network theory if we may allow ourselves to imagine that it has a charter. It was always said that actor-networks may unwind as the entities that make them up go native. To say that there are differences as well as simi lari ties. Two differences in particular: Cussins is concerned to show that decentting may be crucial to centring. And, conversely, that acc omplished cen tring may lead to motivated decentring.

The strain, then, is not necessarily towards drawing things together. Or if it is, then it is about how drawing things together is intimately related to a contrary process of taking them apart. That making 'whole subi ects' may work by attending to disparate organs. She is concerned with temporality. But not simply with movement though time or the creation of irteversibility concerns crucial to the project-studies of ANT in the s.

With as the ethnomethodologists might put it the reflexive repair of indexicals. So here is a difference: Cussins' study reveals a concern with reflexive repair that has no probiem with inconsisiency precisely because it is temporal as well as spatial. For there is no need to draw things together, except for a moment - and that moment will pass, pass into oscillation, movement, alternative patterning.

At some other moment things will be ordered difierintly. The concern with what, perhaps, we should no longer call 'inconsistency' has been displaced. Into what she calls ontological choreography.

Into dance instead of design. Dance instead of design.

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But something more needs to be said. To talk, as does Charis Cussins, of ontoiogical choreography, is not to imagine that life is light or easy. It is not to say that there are no 'constraints'. That interaction is if I may use another old word free from "power". It is not to argue for voluntarism, or to imagine that living is simply a matter of "play", that it is not serious. That it is a form of self-indulgence available only to the priviieged.

For, as Cussins also insists, dance is not easy. Rather, it is an accomplishment, a form of work, of effort, of great effort, in a place, with materials that are obdurate.

With materials that may resist. With materials that may impose their costs, their own forms of pain.

if you ever meet again traduction

The ontological choreography of actor-network theory. We may make something out of its instances, out of matters that might become its parts. Accept the pain and the effort involved in holding it together, in its centring. Or, and, at another moment we may not. We may say it did not work, that it did not hold together, that it was never a theory at all, that the work of centring was false. Like the story of IVF, it is also a story about inconsisiency.

And a story about ambivalence.

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It's a story about the way in which an actor-network may grow and stabilise itself not because the links are, as it were, all drawn together, but rather because they are inconsistent. The story is Vicky Singleton's. The UK has a national programme for screening women who are thought to be at risk from cancer of the cervix. The definition of who might be at risk is a matter for debate, but roughly, it is the population of women aged between 20 and 64 who are or have been sexually active.

It's possible to tell a story about the rise of the CSP programme, and the ways in which it has changed since it came into being inand to do this in an actor-network mode. In addition, however, it is also possible to focus on the way in which the programme seems to be caught up in ambivalence.

For, when one starts to look, almost eviryihing about it is ambiviient. For ini tance, the General Practitioners who are involved are ambivalent, or offer contrary views, in many different ways.

if you ever meet again traduction

They are keen to persuade women at risk to undertake the test on the grounds that in this way pre-cancerous cellular changes can be detected, and the women concerned can be monitored and treated; 2.

But, they also know that the level of cancer of the cervix has not declined in the UK during the 35 years the programme has been in existence. They tell women that the test itself is simple and does not cause pain; 4. But they also know that the test may be painful, and under certain conditions is certainly not simple; indeed, that in some cases the test has to be taken again because the first sample of cells was inadequate. They work on the assumption, and tell women, that the laboratory diagnoses of cell smears is routine and reliable; 6.

But they also know and here they are joined by technicians and others that laboratory scanning of smears is complex, extremely skilled and involves the exercise of much uncertain judgement. But they are also criti cal of the statistical target and the system of payment because it does not take account of the specific circumstances of individual women, both pers onal, and in terms of such background factors as social class.

Vicky Singleton also notes that under certain circumstances General Practitioners assume the mantle of expertise - as for instance when they seek to enrol women in the CSP by observi ng that it is in their medi cal interests to do so.

However, under other circumstances they stress that they are ignomnt, lacking the speiialist knowledge to make finer judgements - as, for instance, when they say that women are rational and should be allowed to decide for themselves whether or not to participate in the programme.

But her argument is that such ostiliattons and ambivalences are not a probl em, not for the General Practitioners, and not for the CSP.

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This is because they do not undermine it. On the contrary, they actually strengthen it. To be auihoriiattve under some circumstances tends to secure participation. And not to be authoritative may similarly secure participation. For instance, by being suitably sensitive in persuading a participant to return for a second test.

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Commentary three Vicky Singleton offers a view of 'the actor-network' - but it is a translated version for it does not talk about an overall and consist ent strategyin which matters are drawn together and engineered heterogeneously.

It does not tell about how some actors are immobilised by others. Rather it tells of the ways in which the network precisely depends on the mobility of all participants, of their ability to shift between different roles, different relations, between roles or links that do not fit that are inconsistent with one another, which do not add up.

This work reflects a concern with decentred identity found in many areas of social inquiry including STS. Or, to shift registers, that a network depends on its Other, or Others. An embeliishment of this would add, in good post-structuralist fashion, that the network not only depends on its Other but it also creates Others.

That to make a signal is also to make noise. To make the assimiiable is also to make the unassimilable. To make the homogeneous is also to make the heterogeneous. But it is also una ss imila ble. It is heterogeneous because it deals with the unassimilable, that which cannot be told or performed within a single network, from a single place, or a single point. Another difference follows from this.

They are not drawn toiether, or at any rate, they are not drawn toiether very successfully. Very successfully in what sense? Does this imply criticism? Well, no, I think not. For here is another concession, no doubt a willing concession, to Otherness. For if unassimilability is characteristic of the world that is described there can be no question of drawing things together in the description, of summing them up.

Instead there will be lots of stories, different stories, stories that are orthogonal to one another, that cannot be told together. I do not know. But I have a suggestion that is implied in Vicky Singleton's writing, and perhaps in that of Charis Cussins' too. For if we are no longer able to draw things together to tell great stories about the growth or decline of networks, then what is there to tell?

No doubt there are many possible responses. But one is this: Which is, I think, one possible account of what Vicky Singlet on is arguing. That the CSP programme is a pattern of oscillations that cannot be told in a single and coherent way, but that it hangs together precisely because it osciliates and embraces ambiguities as a pattern, as an actor network, as an actor-network that cannot be told as a narrative in its ambivalences and Othernesses.

I think we might imagine that, like its objects of study, ANT cannot be told. Cannot be told as a single narrative.

As an overall story about the growth of a centred network with its successes and reverses. And instead imagine that it can only - and best - be represented as a set of little stories, stories that are held together if they are by ambivalences and oscillations.

In which case, as representatives, we might then embrace an art of describing, an art of describing the patterns and textures that form intellectual patchwork.

Story Four Story four is about the Netherlands. It's about Dutch medicine. Let's get this right. It's not a story. It's a series of stories. And these stories are not about medicine, but about certain practices in a specific hospital in the Netherlands, practices that have to do with arteriosclerosis. These stories are similar to those we've told about the Cervical Screening Programme.

They are simiiar, because they are about a set of patches, and how they might link together. But they are also different.

They're different because this time there is no pattern, no 'pattern of arteriosclerosis' to match the 'pattern of the CSP'. Some authors like being interviewed, others resent it or, as the press officer summed it up: And that was a problem. The problem he referred to was the fact that no French-speaking author meant no TV or radio interviews. Besides, the fact that everything would have to be in English, or involve some kind of interpretation by a third party, might prevent open and friendly communication with the author.

The risk could be felt at the start of the conference with the booksellers when, after a short introduction in French explaining that the author would speak in English, the general director asked if anybody wanted her speech to be translated. At that point, the general director swiftly decided to take over the role of interpreter, a function that had been assigned a few minutes before, in the corridor to a sales representative. Following its release, the book was extensively reviewed in the main newspapers—appearing generally on the front page of the literary supplements—and magazines.

Two influential national-radio commentators also discussed it on popular programmes. All these reviews were extremely laudatory. Some even praised something not usually mentioned—the quality of the translation though one columnist criticized a few lexical choices that were too European to his taste.

This looked like a success story. And yet a few months later, a feeling of disappointment could be sensed among those who had been part of it. Most of the reviews had appeared at the same time and while sales had been good for the first couple of weeks, they had quickly slowed down—something I saw as a rather bad sign, recalling the following statement the publisher had made months earlier, in early September, at the start of the literary season: Speaking about this particular title, he took a different view of things.

A few months after the release, he admitted that it had not caught on the way he had hoped. At that time, he estimated that the book would neither lose nor make much money for him.

It also won a very popular annual literary contest broadcast on the national radio. In the weeks following this contest, the book came back on the best-selling list of amazon. These copies were jammed between the Da Vinci Code and Geisha. Things were also bright on the international side. Rights were sold in several more countries Brazil, Spain, Denmark and Portugal and the author continued promoting the book worldwide, from Australia to Germany.

Unfortunately, this continuous success did not have much impact on the reception of our translation. The publisher did not seem too bothered by this, though, maybe because he knew that, having sold about two thirds of the copy-run within a year, he would eventually clear his stock in the long run.

And the future will tell all. Hence, a storyto be continued Around the same time, in London UK a third and likely final draft of the screenplay was completed, so the shooting was to go ahead. As its publisher would wisely say: But categories are not always as clear-cut as one would like them to be. It was neither a multimedia nor a multinational translation project.

Maybe… and maybe not. Let us sum up here. Well, at least this case study illustrated to what extent a bestseller in one language may not be one in another language, no matter how close or even intertwined the reception contexts.

The English Canadian readership is surely bigger than the French Canadian one, but only four times bigger—not a hundred times so. Things were surely more complicated, but getting into the ins and outs of reception was not on my agenda. What I had not anticipated, though, was to meet so many people, more precisely so many co-s, along the way: Now, how a typical or anecdotal is that?

One cannot be too cautious before jumping to conclusions. Of the specificities of independent publishing? Or simply of the challenges of translating fiction in an increasingly saturated and market-driven literary world?

So during the second year of the research programme—once the translation was published—I gradually shifted the viewpoint to the object, moving from bottom to top. I also tried as much as possible to continue exchanging views with these publishers, their editors and their translators.

On the role of literary agents The first thing—in the chronological sense—that attracted my attention was the role played by literary agents in allocating translation rights. Agents, however, do not constitute an homogenous whole.

The second type of agents, much more numerous, act more as a middlemen selling a knowledge of a particular local market; these agents usually work for other agents who can themselves be sub-agents of other entities. As he explained, these networks can be fuzzy and complex, which is another element that makes the negotiation processes more complex.

The development of such networks is only quite recent, which may explain why translation scholars have so far paid scant attention to them. Yet literary agents are interesting, indeed, intriguing actors simply because they are the most accomplished embodiment of the hybridity and impurity of literary and publishing practices.

Unlike all other actors—publishers, authors and even literary translators and booksellers—these intermediaries, at least the second type, assume a function in which prestige is not self-evident.

The way these agents are positioned at the Frankfurt Book Fair is quite revealing of their economic and symbolic status. More particularly with respect to translation studies, one should explore what part these agents play in the setting of what Toury calls preliminary norms, those norms that regulate the selection of books to be translated.

These intermediaries clearly exert an influence on the terms under which translation licenses are negotiated and, consequently, on the balance of power between various publishers and between literary fields. The part played by literary agents in this initial decision-making process is certainly not trivial, but it is less clear and deserves further investigation.

In that matter, one could expect to observe differences between the two types of agents. Those met in the scope of this research mainly belonged to the second type; i.

Though regularly criticized by publishers when these persons act as importers of literatureliterary agents have become a precious, nearly indispensable resource for these same publishers when it comes to selling translation rights. On international co-edition publishing The expansion of international literary agencies encourages alliances between publishers. Co-edition publication is one result of this phenomenon.

Hence, it can include many different scenarios, from a close co-production involving the true sharing of risks, costs and rights by two or more publishers, to the sale of a translation license for a particular territory, involving the sale of the translated text, with or without modifications. Co-edition publication has various advantages for those who undertake it. First, it allows for splitting production costs.

Hence, it can be used as a strategy enabling small publishers or established publishers working on small markets or with minor languages to conduct translation projects they would otherwise not dare undertake because they would not be eligible for a subsidy, or the project are too expensive to produce. Finally, in some cases, when titles are released at the same time in different markets, co-edition may be a way of creating momentum and attracting more attention to this title. So co-edition may not apply to all titles, but it is certainly not anecdotal either.

In a study conducted on the French market—a market than cannot be regarded as particularly weak nor marginal—Christian Robin concluded that as far as illustrated or practical books are concerned, international co-edition or co-production has now become the norm.

Co-edition or co-printing exist independently from translation, but when applied to translations that are construed as derivative products, more than any other subject to manipulation, it raises a number of questions. How and for how much will the translation be sold to the co-editor? How does co-edition affect the selection process, the nature and pace of the publication process as well as translation strategies? As this case revealed, the need to produce one text for two markets simultaneously had a very concrete impact on stylistic choices.

In this particular story, the tension and negotiations between the translators and their editor seemed to be easily overcome by shared positions and complicity. Yet this rather harmonious image should not be generalized. When we talked about this issue in more general terms, beyond this case study, the translators insisted that the negotiation process did not always go as smoothly.

With other publishers, they often had to fight for their views and admitted they were not always successful in doing so.

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So, with time, they had tried to consider these issues with a degree of detachment or at least had learned to choose their battles. As they develop, these forms of international unilingual cooperation will compel translation scholars to rethink, or at least fine-tune, their theoretical models, in particular those designed to account for the formation of operationalnorms.

And, as this case study reveals, translators and publishers more rarely authors take active part in these changes. As different as their habitus and ambitions might be, these actors share a common desire to alter traditional patterns and to make a place for themselves.

Nowadays, most established literary publishers have succeeded in concluding some form of partnership with their French homologues. And, more importantly, they are gradually more involved in the making of these translations. So further case studies may be undertaken in order to determine whether the type of compromise observed here is a common one.

To what extent does this pattern subvert or reproduce former power relationships? It is Thy love, Jesus, Thy death, Thy life, - by which we have received this unspeakable portion - may our hearts never forget - that it is to honour Thee that thou hast set us apart.

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Around Thee, Lord, Thy Church gathers - to announce Thy death until Thy return, - and we break the bread, we drink the cup, - which remind us of Thy love.

Our iniquity laid on Thy head - a load of sorrow unbearably heavy: As we taste this bread, this cup, - our eyes look for Thee in that heavenly abode. We bless Thee, Jesus, faithful, and tender Saviour! Thou dost set before us, 2x - Jesus, of Thy suffering for our deliverance - a very sweet remembrance. This cup and this bread 2x - which Thy hand offers to us, of Thy unchanging grace - are true tokens.

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The soul remains confounded - before this blessed love, vaster than space, - as deep as infinity; - and so our hearts desire - the time of Thy return, - to see, to fathom, to tell - the greatness of Thy love. Saints, let us draw near and may, in our hymns, - with love, the Lamb be exalted! He gave Himself for us in sacrifice; - nothing stopped his unspeakable love - to save us from eternal darkness, - He came offering Himself up to the strokes of justice - oppressed, cursed - was Christ.

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