Data, Information, Knowledge, & Wisdom
Mar 19, There's a big difference between collecting data and gaining wisdom. It's easy to misjudge the gap between having the facts and knowing what. The relationship between data, information, knowledge and wisdom is explained. The growth of the Internet is changing the traditional hierarchies of 'experts'. Computers are often called data processing machines or information processing machines. People understand and accept the fact that computers are machines.
Data comes in the form of raw observations and measurements.
Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom? — Information is Beautiful
I tend to see data both as raw facts or chunks of facts about the state of the real world, as well as a symbol that attempts to capture the true picture of a real event. Information is created by analyzing relationships and connections between the data.
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- DIKW pyramid
- The Answer is 42. On Data, Information and Knowledge
Information is a message with an implied audience and a purpose. Knowledge is perhaps the concept hardest to define and definitions may refer to information having been processed, organized or structured in some way, or else as being applied or put into action.What is DIKW?
My feeling is that knowledge explicit as well as tacit is created by using the information for action. Knowledge is contextualized; a local practice or relationship that works, and can be shared by properly sharing the context that makes the information become knowledge. In a sense it is what helps us make a better informed decision between two seemingly similar choices, or what helps us to apply knowledge toward the attainment of a common or higher good.
Any of these terms are relative concepts and knowledge can be considered as information data on a higher, more abstract domain-of-application level. An example ; When humans make decisions and use information for action we tend to talk about knowledge.
But these days computers make a lot of decisions on data and information without any human intervention, which begs the question if a computer can be knowledgeable. Another point would be that the pyramid is not really a pyramid, but should perhaps look like an hourglass in which there are both lines going up as well as down.
Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom
Data can be derived from knowledge and information; the quantification step in the Most Significant Change technique is a good example of this type of reverse processing. Zeleny has rejected the idea of explicit knowledge as in Zins' universal knowledgearguing that once made symbolic, knowledge becomes information. Knowledge is a thought in the individual's mindwhich is characterized by the individual's justifiable belief that it is true.
It can be empirical and non-empirical, as in the case of logical and mathematical knowledge e. Note that knowledge is the content of a thought in the individual's mind, which is characterized by the individual's justifiable belief that it is true, while "knowing" is a state of mind which is characterized by the three conditions: The distinction here between subjective knowledge and subjective information is that subjective knowledge is characterized by justifiable belief, where subjective information is a type of knowledge concerning the meaning of data.
Boiko implied that knowledge was both open to rational discourse and justification, when he defined knowledge as "a matter of dispute". Boiko appears to have dismissed wisdom, characterizing it as "non-material". Wisdom is the ability to increase effectiveness. Wisdom adds value, which requires the mental function that we call judgment. The ethical and aesthetic values that this implies are inherent to the actor and are unique and personal.
Because of this, wisdom is deeper and more uniquely human. It requires a sense of good and bad, right and wrong, ethical and unethical. DIKW is a hierarchical model often depicted as a pyramid,   with data at its base and wisdom at its apex.
In this regard it is similar to Maslow's hierarchy of needsin that each level of the hierarchy is argued to be an essential precursor to the levels above.
Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom?
Unlike Maslow's hierarchy, which describes relationships of priority lower levels are focused on firstDIKW describes purported structural or functional relationships lower levels comprise the material of higher levels. Both Zeleny and Ackoff have been credited with originating the pyramid representation,  although neither used a pyramid to present their ideas. Debons and colleagues  may have been the first to "present the hierarchy graphically". One example, in use by knowledge managers in the United States Armyattempts to show the progression transforming data to information then knowledge and finally wisdom, as well as the activities involved to ultimately create shared understanding throughout the organization and manage decision risk.
Information quality tracks the completeness, correctness, currency, consistency and precision of the data items and information statements available. The fact that it is readily available in writing or published material does not entail that everybody should be knowledgeable about it to meet the condition of being "common knowledge".
Godbout presents these definitions in an article discussing roles of computers in the field called "knowledge management. Educational Implications It appears that one of the issues in defining the terms data, information, knowledge, and wisdom is the role of understanding and meaning making.
One can memorize data, and parrot it back. One processes data organizes it into meaningful chunks? Parroting such chunks sounds more like being educated--but this can be done with little understanding or ability to make use of the information.
Knowledge is a step further on the scale. It involves understanding and ability to make use of the data and information to answer questions, solve problems, make decisions, and so on.
Wisdom has to do with using one's knowledge in a responsible wise manner.
In recent years, Robert Sternberg has taken the position that wisdom can and should be taught in schools, even at the elementary school level. A summary of his ideas and definitions is available in the following reference.
November 13, When schools teach for wisdom, they teach students that it is important not just what you know, but how you use what you know--whether you use it for good ends or bad. They are teaching for what the Bush administration referred to recently, in a White House conference, as the "fourth R": Smart but foolish and irresponsible people, including, apparently, some who run or have run major businesses in our country, exhibit four characteristic fallacies in their thinking.
I define wisdom as the application of intelligence and experience toward the attainment of a common good. This attainment involves a balance among a intrapersonal one's ownb interpersonal other people'sand c extrapersonal more than personal, such as institutional interests, over the short and long terms. Thus, wise people look out not just for themselves, but for all toward whom they have any responsibility.
Understanding ; Data, Knowledge, Information & Wisdom
The ISTE National Educational Technology Standards for students, teachers, and school administrators all stress the responsible use of computer systems. Or, here is a slightly different twist on the situation.
We want students, teachers, and school administrators to be responsible, wise use of computer systems. As students learn to be responsible and wise, we want transfer of learning to occur among many different application areas, including IT. This article adds one more piece--understanding--to the data, information, knowledge, and understand list.
Quoting from the Website: According to Russell Ackoff, a systems theorist and professor of organizational change, the content of the human mind can be classified into five categories: Changing Information into Knowledge Assets. Journal of Systemic Knowledge Management. This article provides a careful analysis of knowledge management by people and computer systems, from a business point of view. Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom.