The Scientific Revolution and The Industrial Revolution. The Newton Connection - Intriguing History
To quote Wikipedia: > The principal goals of Enlightenment thinkers were $50 billion industry is still anyone's game. Essentially the Scientific Revolution contributed to the progress, reason, and fraternal aspects of the Enlightenment. What is the relationship between the scientific revolution and the enlightenment?. I. THE PLACE OF SCIENCE IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. .. To consider the relation between science and technology further, we divide the whole. How was the scientific revolution related to the industrial revolution? The issue with an increasingly institutionalised connection between scientific research.
Commercial, business and management education was virtually non-existent during most of the 19th century and was even less developed than technical education.
Science and the Enlightenment - A Scientific Revolution
I will consider the development of business and management education in later chapters. One fascinating factor that reflects the basic hostility towards industry and technical education is explored by Wiener 1 and others namely the influence of class and social stratification.
What is particularly interesting is the manner in which the first generation of successful industrialists behaved towards the education of their children. They invested their fortunes in massive country estates and did all possible to be recognised, accepted and assimilated into the upper echelons of English society.
This most certainly included sending their sons to Eton or other public schools and Oxbridge and upon graduating they entered the family business ill — prepared to be part of the business lacking the necessary experiences, knowledge, skills and the techniques associated with the industrial processes, technological and scientific concepts and management of the business. Even more interesting is that many did not return to the business but went into the perceived more cultured and dignified environments of law, politics, religion and the other learned professions.
These negative attitudes still exists today. One only has to see the current problems with recruiting people in these subjects into colleges and universities. These deeply held attitudes and prejudices most certainly demonstrate the destructive effect of class attitudes and negative perceptions that persist even to day in some quarters of society.
Most company managers were reluctant to adapt and innovate and invested little in new plant and equipment. This created a culture of resistance to move with the times and overall industry failed to invest in new plant and equipment, develop new products and processes based on advancing scientific and technological ideas and reluctance to recruit scientifically and technologically qualified people.
This reluctance to embrace new industrial and managerial practices continued well into the 20th century. One classic case was the indifference indeed hostility towards the introduction of scientific management techniques. This approach was developed with great success in the USA but employers in this country resisted its introduction arguing strongly that workers were human beings and not machines and that there was no place for scientific routines or procedures in industrial and commercial businesses.
The role and interrelationship between Science and Technology and its impact on technical education. Just as advances in technology significantly influenced the Industrial Revolution the development of scientific ideas in turn influenced technology and made major contributions to the first and second industrial revolutions.
Indeed until the advent of the scientific era, technological advances were almost exclusively based on craft and trade skills and experience, personified by the apprentice model where the skills were handed on very much on a personal and individualistic level.
Industrial Revolutions vs. Scientific Revolution by Mycah Butler on Prezi
The secrets of the craft or trade were jealously guarded and often shrouded in mystery. Chapter 3 will describe more fully the apprenticeship model before and after the Industrial Revolution. One of the more intriguing aspects in writing this history is the identification of a number of perplexing and paradoxical issues, none more so than the interaction between science and technology and the role and teaching of these disciplines in the emerging education systems.
This paradox has been highlighted by a number of influential writers e. The belief which sadly continues today is that science is seen as being a more superior body of knowledge than technology as well as the subsequent application of scientific knowledge and ideas. This perception of precedence comprised two directly related aspects, firstly that science always precedes technology because the application could only happen after the scientific discovery was made and secondly the view that science education was superior to technical education.
Although the first assertion is valid in most cases it is not universally true. The application of existing technology can itself bring about the need for further and new scientific research and discovery.
As existing technologies and machines are operated in different working situations the demands and limitations of the machinery and the underlying technologies often precipitate the need for more original scientific research.
Therefore the belief that science is always ahead of technology and therefore is superior is a false one as it is clearly a two way iterative process i. A classic example of how technology precedes and interacts with science can be seen in the development of the steam engine. As the use of the engine was diversified and applied in different situations fundamental design and operating limitations were identified that required further basic scientific research and this in turn challenged and questioned the existing scientific theories and hypothesises.
In this case of the steam engine the discipline of thermodynamics was greatly enhanced and refined. A good example at present is the use of bio-fuels in cars that traditionally use petrol or diesel as the array of O rings and gaskets cannot operate in the new operating environment created by the bio-fuels.
Therefore a whole new area of material science has had to be established in order to deal with the challenges of the existing technology. Other examples show that science and technology possess a synergistic relationship to one another and clearly feed off each other and that no one discipline is superior to the other. However it was the aspect of this false belief that has been so damaging to the development of technical and applied education namely that scientific education should take precedence over technical education.
This assertion most certainly had a negative and retarding impact on the image and development of technical education during the 19th century — one can also see these elements in play even today as the history will show later. The acceptance of this belief by politicians and decision makers meant that education policy at the time required the instruction of science to take precedence over the instruction of technical, applied and practical subjects. This highly questionable belief and attitude was even held and articulated by some of the greatest advocates of technical education including Lyon Playfair and Thomas Huxley 4 who both voiced similar views as Williamson.
The debate continues even today as evidenced in early when an enlightened government minister stressed the need to commit a greater proportion of the research funding for science to enhance the economic and technological base of the country. The vast majority of the scientific community, mostly university based, expressed their total disagreement with this suggestion arguing it subverted academic freedom and independence.
This was the period of the first Industrial Revolution driven by steam. The second Indutrial Revolution from the midth century was driven by the chemical, communications and electrical technologies which Britain did not fully capitalise on — Germany and America did!
Summary The development of technical education during most of the 19th century had to overcome many prejudices and problems in order for it to gain recognition and credibility.
Reading the literature shows conclusively that those resisting forces and movements came from all levels of society, the State and individuals. This resistance manifested itself as shown in this and the previous chapter through a whole host of factors and these were coupled with: The next chapter will consider the importance of the Craft Guilds-Livery Companies, the Gilds and the apprenticeship schemes before the first industrial revolution and their gradual decline as the first industrial revolution evolved.
While preparing a revised edition of his Principia, Newton attributed his law of gravity and his first law of motion to a range of historical figures. Not only were there revolutionary theoretical and experimental developments, but that even more importantly, the way in which scientists worked was radically changed.
For instance, although intimations of the concept of inertia are suggested sporadically in ancient discussion of motion,   the salient point is that Newton's theory differed from ancient understandings in key ways, such as an external force being a requirement for violent motion in Aristotle's theory. The philosophy of using an inductive approach to obtain knowledge — to abandon assumption and to attempt to observe with an open mind — was in contrast with the earlier, Aristotelian approach of deductionby which analysis of known facts produced further understanding.
In practice, many scientists and philosophers believed that a healthy mix of both was needed — the willingness to question assumptions, yet also to interpret observations assumed to have some degree of validity. By the end of the Scientific Revolution the qualitative world of book-reading philosophers had been changed into a mechanical, mathematical world to be known through experimental research.
Though it is certainly not true that Newtonian science was like modern science in all respects, it conceptually resembled ours in many ways. Many of the hallmarks of modern scienceespecially with regard to its institutionalization and professionalization, did not become standard until the midth century.
Empiricism The Aristotelian scientific tradition's primary mode of interacting with the world was through observation and searching for "natural" circumstances through reasoning.
Coupled with this approach was the belief that rare events which seemed to contradict theoretical models were aberrations, telling nothing about nature as it "naturally" was. During the Scientific Revolution, changing perceptions about the role of the scientist in respect to nature, the value of evidence, experimental or observed, led towards a scientific methodology in which empiricism played a large, but not absolute, role.
By the start of the Scientific Revolution, empiricism had already become an important component of science and natural philosophy. Prior thinkersincluding the earlyth-century nominalist philosopher William of Ockhamhad begun the intellectual movement toward empiricism. Thomas HobbesGeorge Berkeleyand David Hume were the philosophy's primary exponents, who developed a sophisticated empirical tradition as the basis of human knowledge.
An influential formulation of empiricism was John Locke 's An Essay Concerning Human Understandingin which he maintained that the only true knowledge that could be accessible to the human mind was that which was based on experience. He wrote that the human mind was created as a tabula rasaa "blank tablet," upon which sensory impressions were recorded and built up knowledge through a process of reflection.
Baconian science Francis Bacon was a pivotal figure in establishing the scientific method of investigation. Portrait by Frans Pourbus the Younger The philosophical underpinnings of the Scientific Revolution were laid out by Francis Baconwho has been called the father of empiricism. His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today.
Bacon proposed a great reformation of all process of knowledge for the advancement of learning divine and human, which he called Instauratio Magna The Great Instauration. For Bacon, this reformation would lead to a great advancement in science and a progeny of new inventions that would relieve mankind's miseries and needs. His Novum Organum was published in He argued that man is "the minister and interpreter of nature", that "knowledge and human power are synonymous", that "effects are produced by the means of instruments and helps", and that "man while operating can only apply or withdraw natural bodies; nature internally performs the rest", and later that "nature can only be commanded by obeying her".
Therefore, that man, by seeking knowledge of nature, can reach power over it — and thus reestablish the "Empire of Man over creation", which had been lost by the Fall together with man's original purity. In this way, he believed, would mankind be raised above conditions of helplessness, poverty and misery, while coming into a condition of peace, prosperity and security.
For him, the philosopher should proceed through inductive reasoning from fact to axiom to physical law. Before beginning this induction, though, the enquirer must free his or her mind from certain false notions or tendencies which distort the truth.
In particular, he found that philosophy was too preoccupied with words, particularly discourse and debate, rather than actually observing the material world: Scientific experimentation Bacon first described the experimental method.
There remains simple experience; which, if taken as it comes, is called accident, if sought for, experiment. The true method of experience first lights the candle [hypothesis], and then by means of the candle shows the way [arranges and delimits the experiment]; commencing as it does with experience duly ordered and digested, not bungling or erratic, and from it deducing axioms [theories], and from established axioms again new experiments.
He passionately rejected both the prevailing Aristotelian philosophy and the Scholastic method of university teaching. His book De Magnete was written inand he is regarded by some as the father of electricity and magnetism. From these experiments, he concluded that the Earth was itself magnetic and that this was the reason compasses point north. Diagram from William Gilbert 's De Magnetea pioneering work of experimental science De Magnete was influential not only because of the inherent interest of its subject matter, but also for the rigorous way in which Gilbert described his experiments and his rejection of ancient theories of magnetism.
It is the more remarkable, because it preceded the Novum Organum of Bacon, in which the inductive method of philosophizing was first explained. Galileo revolutionized the study of the natural world with his rigorous experimental method.
Galileo was one of the first modern thinkers to clearly state that the laws of nature are mathematical. In The Assayer he wrote "Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures; In broader terms, his work marked another step towards the eventual separation of science from both philosophy and religion; a major development in human thought.
He was often willing to change his views in accordance with observation. In order to perform his experiments, Galileo had to set up standards of length and time, so that measurements made on different days and in different laboratories could be compared in a reproducible fashion.
This provided a reliable foundation on which to confirm mathematical laws using inductive reasoning. Galileo showed an appreciation for the relationship between mathematics, theoretical physics, and experimental physics.
He understood the parabolaboth in terms of conic sections and in terms of the ordinate y varying as the square of the abscissa x. Galilei further asserted that the parabola was the theoretically ideal trajectory of a uniformly accelerated projectile in the absence of friction and other disturbances. He conceded that there are limits to the validity of this theory, noting on theoretical grounds that a projectile trajectory of a size comparable to that of the Earth could not possibly be a parabola,  but he nevertheless maintained that for distances up to the range of the artillery of his day, the deviation of a projectile's trajectory from a parabola would be only very slight.
Galileo maintained strongly that mathematics provided a kind of necessary certainty that could be compared to God's: It is written in the language of mathematicsand its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering around in a dark labyrinth. Mechanical philosophy Aristotle recognized four kinds of causes, and where applicable, the most important of them is the "final cause".
The final cause was the aim, goal, or purpose of some natural process or man-made thing. Until the Scientific Revolution, it was very natural to see such aims, such as a child's growth, for example, leading to a mature adult.
Intelligence was assumed only in the purpose of man-made artifacts; it was not attributed to other animals or to nature. In " mechanical philosophy " no field or action at a distance is permitted, particles or corpuscles of matter are fundamentally inert. Motion is caused by direct physical collision. Where natural substances had previously been understood organically, the mechanical philosophers viewed them as machines.
According to Thomas KuhnNewton and Descartes held the teleological principle that God conserved the amount of motion in the universe: Gravity, interpreted as an innate attraction between every pair of particles of matter, was an occult quality in the same sense as the scholastics' "tendency to fall" had been By the mid eighteenth century that interpretation had been almost universally accepted, and the result was a genuine reversion which is not the same as a retrogression to a scholastic standard.
Innate attractions and repulsions joined size, shape, position and motion as physically irreducible primary properties of matter.
But whereas Newton vehemently denied gravity was an inherent power of matter, his collaborator Roger Cotes made gravity also an inherent power of matter, as set out in his famous preface to the Principia's second edition which he edited, and contradicted Newton himself. And it was Cotes's interpretation of gravity rather than Newton's that came to be accepted. Institutionalization The Royal Society had its origins in Gresham Collegeand was the first scientific society in the world.
The first moves towards the institutionalization of scientific investigation and dissemination took the form of the establishment of societies, where new discoveries were aired, discussed and published. The first scientific society to be established was the Royal Society of London.
This grew out of an earlier group, centred around Gresham College in the s and s. According to a history of the College: The scientific network which centred on Gresham College played a crucial part in the meetings which led to the formation of the Royal Society. A group known as The Philosophical Society of Oxford was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library.
At the second meeting, Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, and a Royal charter was signed on 15 July creating the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first President. This initial royal favour has continued, and since then every monarch has been the patron of the Society.
The Society's first Secretary was Henry Oldenburg. Its early meetings included experiments performed first by Robert Hooke and then by Denis Papinwho was appointed in These experiments varied in their subject area, and were both important in some cases and trivial in others. In contrast to the private origins of its British counterpart, the Academy was founded as a government body by Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
- Science and the Enlightenment
New ideas As the Scientific Revolution was not marked by any single change, the following new ideas contributed to what is called the Scientific Revolution. Many of them were revolutions in their own fields. Astronomy Heliocentrism For almost five millenniathe geocentric model of the Earth as the center of the universe had been accepted by all but a few astronomers.
In Aristotle's cosmology, Earth's central location was perhaps less significant than its identification as a realm of imperfection, inconstancy, irregularity and change, as opposed to the "heavens" Moon, Sun, planets, starswhich were regarded as perfect, permanent, unchangeable, and in religious thought, the realm of heavenly beings.
The Earth was even composed of different material, the four elements "earth", "water", "fire", and "air", while sufficiently far above its surface roughly the Moon's orbitthe heavens were composed of different substance called "aether". Heavenly motions no longer needed to be governed by a theoretical perfection, confined to circular orbits. Portrait of Johannes Kepler Copernicus' work on the heliocentric model of the solar system tried to demonstrate that the sun was the center of the universe.
Few were bothered by this suggestion, and the pope and several archbishops were interested enough by it to want more detail. It contradicted not only empirical observation, due to the absence of an observable stellar parallax but more significantly at the time, the authority of Aristotle. The discoveries of Johannes Kepler and Galileo gave the theory credibility.
Kepler was an astronomer who, using the accurate observations of Tycho Braheproposed that the planets move around the sun not in circular orbits, but in elliptical ones. Together with his other laws of planetary motionthis allowed him to create a model of the solar system that was an improvement over Copernicus' original system.
Galileo's main contributions to the acceptance of the heliocentric system were his mechanics, the observations he made with his telescope, as well as his detailed presentation of the case for the system.
Using an early theory of inertiaGalileo could explain why rocks dropped from a tower fall straight down even if the earth rotates. His observations of the moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, the spots on the sun, and mountains on the moon all helped to discredit the Aristotelian philosophy and the Ptolemaic theory of the solar system. Through their combined discoveries, the heliocentric system gained support, and at the end of the 17th century it was generally accepted by astronomers.
This work culminated in the work of Isaac Newton. Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitationwhich dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravityand then using the same principles to account for the trajectories of cometsthe tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the cosmos.
This work also demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles. His prediction that the Earth should be shaped as an oblate spheroid was later vindicated by other scientists.
His laws of motion were to be the solid foundation of mechanics; his law of universal gravitation combined terrestrial and celestial mechanics into one great system that seemed to be able to describe the whole world in mathematical formulae.
Gravitation Isaac Newton 's Principiadeveloped the first set of unified scientific laws. As well as proving the heliocentric model, Newton also developed the theory of gravitation.