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Conclusions. Although there is evidence supporting a link between smoking and CRS, studies suggest that there might be individual susceptibility to cigarette. But with the right plan and the right help, you will eventually succeed and quit for good. Scroll through our top 10 tips. Lung volumes are measured to evaluate the normality of respiratory . The relationship between cigarette smoking and the respiratory function.
Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body, causing many diseases and reducing health in general. Dangerous chemicals in tobacco smoke The most damaging components of tobacco smoke are: Tar — this is the collective term for the various particles suspended in tobacco smoke.
The particles contain chemicals, including several cancer-causing substances carcinogens.
Tar is sticky and brown, and stains teeth, fingernails and lung tissue. Tar contains the carcinogen benzo a pyrene.
Carbon monoxide — this odourless gas is fatal in large doses because it takes the place of oxygen in the blood. Each red blood cell contains a protein called haemoglobin that transports oxygen molecules around the body. However, carbon monoxide binds to haemoglobin better than oxygen.
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- Effects of Smoking on Chest Expansion, Lung Function, and Respiratory Muscle Strength of Youths
In response, the body makes more red blood cells to carry the oxygen it needs, but it makes the blood thicker. This means that when the body demands more oxygen during exercise, less oxygen reaches the brain, heart, muscles and other organs.
Hydrogen cyanide — the lungs contain tiny hairs cilia that help to clean the lungs by moving foreign substances out. Hydrogen cyanide stops this lung clearance system from working properly, which means the poisonous chemicals in tobacco smoke can build up inside the lungs.
Smoking - effects on your body
Other chemicals in smoke that damage the lungs include hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides, organic acids, phenols and oxidising agents.
Oxidizing chemicals — these highly reactive chemicals which include free radicals can damage the heart muscles and blood vessels.Alveoli: Gas Exchange
They react with cholesterol, leading to the build-up of fatty material on artery walls. Their actions lead to heart disease, stroke and blood vessel disease. Metals — tobacco smoke contains dangerous metals including arsenic, cadmium and lead. Maximal inspiratory pressure MIP and maximal expiratory pressure MEP are simple, convenient, and non-invasive indices of respiratory muscle strength measured at the mouth.
Effects of Smoking on Chest Expansion, Lung Function, and Respiratory Muscle Strength of Youths
Respiratory muscle strength depends on the maximal effort of the muscles used in chest expansion during breathing 6. Spirometry is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time, and it is invaluable as a screening test of general respiratory health 5.
Lung volumes are measured to evaluate the normality of respiratory function 7. Some previous studies have demonstrated the effect of smoking on the pulmonary function of adults 89 A previous study reported that older symptomatic smokers with histories of large numbers of pack-years had lower FVC levels than non-smokers, while young adult smokers had FVC levels equivalent to or higher than age-equivalent non-smokers The intensity and duration of smoking by elderly smokers, including the degenerative effect, are likely to have powerful respiratory health effects.
However, there is no clear evidence indicating that smoking affects the lung function of youths as severely as in the elderly. Since inhaling cigarette smoke has been shown to produce acute changes in the lung including alterations in resistance to airflow, cough, and irritation of the airway, the early stage of smoking might affect the respiratory function of youths.
However, there have been few studies which have investigated the effect of smoking on pulmonary function in adolescents. In previous studies, cigarette smoking was found to have an effect on the lung function of the adolescent boys and girls 13 Only the pulmonary function test with a spirometer was measured in those studies. Therefore, to clarify the effect of smoking on the respiratory function of smoking and non-smoking youths, we measured and compared their chest expansion, the lung function test using a spirometer, and respiratory muscle strength to learn more about the dangers of cigarette smoking.
We hypothesized that early smoking by adolescents would affect chest expansion, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength. All the subjects had a body mass index BMI in the range of The information on smoking habits was obtained through interviews. In the present study, those who used to smoke but had since stopped were excluded. Smokers were further asked questions regarding what age they started smoking, the average duration of smoking, and the average number of cigarettes smoked per day.
The respiratory function test consisted of the measurement of chest expansion, the lung function test using spirometry, and respiratory muscle strength.
For chest expansion measurements of circumference and diameter, subjects were instructed to fully inhale and exhale in the standing position.
The differences between full inhalation and exhalation were recorded as chest expansion 4. The chest circumference was measured using a tape measurement at 3 levels: