their performance, motivation and give a sense of job satisfaction to them. This study investigates the relationship between training and development and Job. Keywords: Development, Erbil, Job satisfaction, Private Bank, Training. 1. capability which links to the group or an individual within an organization in order to. for practitioners in the fields of training and human resource development, Should satisfaction with job training in relation to overall job satisfaction be studied?.
The next step is to use this information to identify where training is needed by the organization as a whole or by individual employees. It may also be helpful to conduct an internal audit to find general areas that might benefit from training, or to complete a skills inventory to determine the types of skills employees possess and the types they may need in the future.
Each different job within the company should be broken down on a task-by-task basis in order to help determine the content of the training program. The training program should relate not only to the specific needs identified through the company and individual assessments, but also to the overall goals of the company.
The objectives of the training should be clearly outlined, specifying what behaviors or skills will be affected and how they relate to the strategic mission of the company.
In addition, the objectives should include several intermediate steps or milestones in order to motivate the trainees and allow the company to evaluate their progress.
Since training employees is expensive, a small business needs to give careful consideration to the question of which employees to train. This decision should be based on the ability of the employee to learn the material and the likelihood that they will be motivated by the training experience. If the chosen employees fail to benefit from the training program or leave the company soon after receiving training, the small business has wasted its limited training funds.
The design of training programs is the core activity of the training and development function. In recent years, the development of training programs has evolved into a profession that utilizes systematic models, methods, and processes of instructional systems design ISD. ISD describes the systematic design and development of instructional methods and materials to facilitate the process of training and development and ensure that training programs are necessary, valid, and effective.
The instructional design process includes the collection of data on the tasks or skills to be learned or improved, the analysis of these skills and tasks, the development of methods and materials, delivery of the program, and finally the evaluation of the training's effectiveness.
Small businesses tend to use two general types of training methods, on-the-job techniques and off-the-job techniques. On-the-job training describes a variety of methods that are applied while employees are actually performing their jobs.
These methods might include orientations, coaching, apprenticeships, internships, job instruction training, and job rotation. The main advantages of on-the-job techniques is that they are highly practical, and employees do not lose working time while they are learning. Off-the-job training, on the other hand, describes a number of training methods that are delivered to employees outside of the regular work environment, though often during working hours.
These techniques might include lectures, conferences, case studies, role playing, simulations, film or television presentations, programmed instruction, or special study. On-the-job training tends to be the responsibility of supervisors, human resources professionals, or more experienced co-workers. Consequently, it is important for small businesses to educate their seasoned employees in training techniques. In contrast, off-the-job tends to be handled by outside instructors or sources, such as consultants, chambers of commerce, technical and vocational schools, or continuing education programs.
Although outside sources are usually better informed as to effective training techniques than company supervisors, they may have a limited knowledge of the company's products and competitive situation.
Another drawback to off-the-job training programs is their cost. These programs can run into the multi thousand dollar per participant level, a cost that may make them prohibitive for many small businesses.
Actual administration of the training program involves choosing an appropriate location, providing necessary equipment, and arranging a convenient time. Such operational details, while seemingly minor components of an overall training effort, can have a significant effect on the success of a program. In addition, the training program should be evaluated at regular intervals while it is going on. Employees' skills should be compared to the predetermined goals or milestones of the training program, and any necessary adjustments should be made immediately.
This ongoing evaluation process will help ensure that the training program successfully meets its expectations. Good continuous learning and development initiatives often feature a combination of several different methods that, blended together, produce one effective training program.
Orientations Orientation training is vital in ensuring the success of new employees. Whether the training is conducted through an employee handbook, a lecture, or a one-on-one meeting with a supervisor, newcomers should receive information on the company's history and strategic position, the key people in authority at the company, the structure of their department and how it contributes to the mission of the company, and the company's employment policies, rules, and regulations.
Lectures A verbal method of presenting information, lectures are particularly useful in situations when the goal is to impart the same information to a large number of people at one time. Since they eliminate the need for individual training, lectures are among the most cost-effective training methods. But the lecture method does have some drawbacks. Since lectures primarily involve one-way communication, they may not provide the most interesting or effective training. In addition, it may be difficult for the trainer to gauge the level of understanding of the material within a large group.
Case Study The case method is a non-directed method of study whereby students are provided with practical case reports to analyze. The case report includes a thorough description of a simulated or real-life situation. By analyzing the problems presented in the case report and developing possible solutions, students can be encouraged to think independently as opposed to relying upon the direction of an instructor.
Independent case analysis can be supplemented with open discussion with a group. The main benefit of the case method is its use of real-life situations.
The multiplicity of problems and possible solutions provide the student with a practical learning experience rather than a collection of abstract knowledge and theories that may be difficult to apply to practical situations.
Role Playing In role playing, students assume a role outside of themselves and play out that role within a group. A facilitator creates a scenario that is to be acted out by the participants under the guidance of the facilitator.
While the situation might be contrived, the interpersonal relations are genuine. Furthermore, participants receive immediate feedback from the facilitator and the scenario itself, allowing better understanding of their own behavior.
This training method is cost effective and is often applied to marketing and management training. Simulations Games and simulations are structured competitions and operational models that emulate real-life scenarios. The benefits of games and simulations include the improvement of problem-solving and decision-making sskills, a greater understanding of the organizational whole, the ability to study actual problems, and the power to capture the student's interest.
Computer-Based Training Computer-based training CBT involves the use of computers and computer-based instructional materials as the primary medium of instruction. Computer-based training programs are designed to structure and present instructional materials and to facilitate the learning process for the student.
A main benefit of CBT is that it allows employees to learn at their own pace, during convenient times.
Primary uses of CBT include instruction in computer hardware, software, and operational equipment. The last is of particular importance because CBT can provide the student with a simulated experience of operating a particular piece of equipment or machinery while eliminating the risk of damage to costly equipment by a trainee or even a novice user.
At the same time, the actual equipment's operational use is maximized because it need not be utilized as a training tool. The use of computer-based training enables a small business to reduce training costs while improving the effectiveness of the training.
Costs are reduced through a reduction in travel, training time, downtime for operational hardware, equipment damage, and instructors. Effectiveness is improved through standardization and individualization.
The greatly expanding number of organizations with Internet access through high-speed connections has made this form of CBT possible. By providing the training material on a Web page that is accessible through any Internet browser, CBT is within reach of any company with access to the Web. The terms "online courses" and "web-based instruction" are sometimes used interchangeably with WBT. Self-Instruction Self-instruction describes a training method in which the students assume primary responsibility for their own learning.
Unlike instructor- or facilitator-led instruction, students retain a greater degree of control regarding topics, the sequence of learning, and the pace of learning.
Depending on the structure of the instructional materials, students can achieve a higher degree of customized learning. Forms of self-instruction include programmed learning, individualized instruction, personalized systems of instruction, learner-controlled instruction, and correspondence study. Each department was first divided into managerial and non managerial employees.
In management employees again top management, middle management and lower management employees were considered. Out of total employees forms were distributed out of which forms were complete and correct which were considered for the study. A quantitative approach was adopted in this research.
Correlation, Regression analysis was employed to examine the effect of Training and development on Employee Satisfaction. The computerized statistical package, SPSS was used for this purpose. The study seeks to reveal the causal relationships between the following: There is no positive relationship between training and development practices and employee satisfaction. There is positive relationship between training and development practices and employee satisfaction.
Correlation is significant at the 0. Age correlate with Training facilities, Training methods, Training types and Usefulness of training this correlation have small to medium effect size. Similarly no correlation has been found in demographic data and employee satisfaction. Correlation analysis between training and development variables and employee satisfaction Pearson product moment correlation: In interpreting the correlation the guidelines suggested by Cohen were followed.
The table shows that employee satisfaction is correlated with all the seven variables of training and development.
Table 3 Regression Analysis: It explained 52 percent of the total variance. This shows that Training and development programs have highly significant effect on employee satisfaction. The regression coefficient of Training programs is 0. So the hypothesis that Training program is positively related to employee satisfaction is proved to be true. Error of the Estimate 1. Coefficients Coefficients B Std. Error Beta Constant 1.
Trainer with Dependent Variable Employee Satisfaction. As presented in Table 5, adjusted R- squared was found 0. It explained 21 percent of the total variance. This shows that Trainer has significant effect on employee satisfaction. The regression coefficient of Trainer is 0. It shows that a unit changes in Trainer causes almost 44 percent change in employee satisfaction. So the hypothesis that Training content is positively related to employee satisfaction is proved to be true.
Error of the Square Estimate 1. Error Beta Constant 2. It explained 35 percent of the total variance. This shows that Training transfer to work has significant effect on employee satisfaction. The regression coefficient of Transfer of learning is 0. So the hypothesis that Transfer of learning to work is positively related to employee satisfaction is proved to be true. Error of the Estimate R Square 1. Regression Summary For Dependent Variable: It explained 39 percent of the total variance.
This shows that Training facility has significant effect on employee satisfaction. The regression coefficient of Training facility is 0. So the hypothesis that Training facility is positively related to employee satisfaction is proved to be true. It explained 40 percent of the total variance. This shows that Training method has significant effect on employee satisfaction.
The regression coefficient of Training method is 0. So the hypothesis that Training Methods is positively related to employee satisfaction is proved to be true. It explained 44 percent of the total variance. This shows that Training types has significant effect on employee satisfaction. The regression coefficient of Training types is 0. So the hypothesis that types of training are positively related to employee satisfaction is proved to be true.
This shows that Training usefulness has significant effect on employee satisfaction. The regression coefficient of Training usefulness is 0. It shows that a unit changes in Training usefulness causes almost 0. So the hypothesis that Training Usefulness is positively related to employee satisfaction is proved to be true. Training programs, Training Usefulness has correlation above 0.
Correlation between Trainer and employee satisfaction is moderate i. As per the research study taken above strong correlation has been found among variables of training and development and employee satisfaction.
Out of many variables employees can be made satisfied if they are given opportunities for better training and development. Organization can put in more efforts to upgrade the quality of their trainers and make better environment for transfer of learning to work.
Satisfaction with trainer has been judged on four criteria their helpful nature, motivation and encouragement provided by them, use of varied learning methods like slidesimagesvideos and help employees in the area where they lack.
Somewhat moderate results in this criteria show that employee expect more then just knowledge from trainers. They want trainers to be their mentors not only trainers who provide knowledge but who put in extra effort can help them in their career path, motivate them and help them develop. If the proper transfer is not done the whole process of training and development the effort and the money go waste.
Transfer of learning has been studied on three criteria management support in transfer, more control over job and transfer of learning in the perception of employees. If more support is given from management side the next two criteria will be fulfilled automatically.
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