Difference Between Valence and Valency | Definition, Explanation with Examples
At your current stage, it's probably easiest to consider the octet rule which applies to nitrogen and the expanded octet rule which applies to. Nitrogen has an atomic number of 7. It has 5 valence electrons. The second link shows the main groups of atoms and their valence electrons. Further Reading. Ans: The combining capacity of an atom is called its valency. Actually it can be defined as the number of electrons that an atom may lose (or) gain during a.
Let us consider Nitrogen.
Difference Between Valency and Valence Electrons
The atomic number of Nitrogen is 7. Electron configuration of Nitrogen: According to the orbital diagram of Nitrogen, it has three spaces for incoming electrons. This is because it has three unpaired electrons and they can be paired by sharing electrons from another atom.
In other words, Nitrogen can be bonded to one, two or three Hydrogen atoms. Or else, Nitrogen can lose one, two or three electrons. This is to show the loss or gain of those electrons.
Valence electron - Wikipedia
What is Valency Valency is the maximum number of electrons that an atom can lose or gain in order to stabilize itself. This term is mostly related to the valence electrons since the number of valence electrons determines the valency of a particular atom. As an example, let us consider the carbon atom. According to the orbital diagram of Carbon, it should gain 4 electrons to obey the octet rule. Octet rule indicates that total of eight electrons in the outermost orbital of atoms is the most stable form of those atoms.
Therefore, the valency of carbon is 4. Similarities Between Valence and Valency The valency of an atom is equal to one of the valences of that atom.
This is because the maximum number of electrons that can be lost, gained or shared by an atom determines the combination strength of that atom. Therefore, although the definitions are different, the value of both valence and valency can be the same. Valence is the ability of an atom to be combined with another atom.
Valency is the maximum number of electrons that an atom can lose or gain in order to stabilize itself. Valence of an atom can have multiple values. For example, the electronic configuration of phosphorus P is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 so that there are 5 valence electrons 3s2 3p3corresponding to a maximum valence for P of 5 as in the molecule PF5; this configuration is normally abbreviated to [Ne] 3s2 3p3, where [Ne] signifies the core electrons whose configuration is identical to that of the noble gas neon.
- Difference Between Valence and Valency
- what is difference between valency and valence electron...
- Valence electron
For example, manganese Mn has configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5; this is abbreviated to [Ar] 4s2 3d5, where [Ar] denotes a core configuration identical to that of the noble gas argon.
In this atom, a 3d electron has energy similar to that of a 4s electron, and much higher than that of a 3s or 3p electron.
The farther right in each transition metal series, the lower the energy of an electron in a d subshell and the less such an electron has the properties of a valence electron. Thus, although a nickel atom has, in principle, ten valence electrons 4s2 3d8its oxidation state never exceeds four. For zincthe 3d subshell is complete and behaves similarly to core electrons. Because the number of valence electrons which actually participate in chemical reactions is difficult to predict, the concept of the valence electron is less useful for a transition metal than for a main group element; the d electron count is an alternative tool for understanding the chemistry of a transition metal.
Valence chemistry The number of electrons in an atom's outermost valence shell governs its bonding behavior. Therefore, elements whose atoms can have the same number of valence electrons are grouped together in the periodic table of the elements. As a general rule, a main group element except hydrogen or helium tends to react to form a closed shellcorresponding to the electron configuration s2p6. This tendency is called the octet rulebecause each bonded atom has eight valence electrons including shared electrons.
The most reactive kind of metallic element is an alkali metal of group 1 e. An alkaline earth metal of Group 2 e. Within each group each periodic table column of metals, reactivity increases with each lower row of the table from a light element to a heavier elementbecause a heavier element has more electron shells than a lighter element; a heavier element's valence electrons exist at higher principal quantum numbers they are farther away from the nucleus of the atom, and are thus at higher potential energies, which means they are less tightly bound.
A nonmetal atom tends to attract additional valence electrons to attain a full valence shell; this can be achieved in one of two ways: An atom can either share electrons with a neighboring atom a covalent bondor it can remove electrons from another atom an ionic bond. The most reactive kind of nonmetal element is a halogen e. Such an atom has the following electron configuration: To form an ionic bond, a halogen atom can remove an electron from another atom in order to form an anion e.
To form a covalent bond, one electron from the halogen and one electron from another atom form a shared pair e. Within each group of nonmetals, reactivity decreases with each lower rows of the table from a light element to a heavy element in the periodic table, because the valence electrons are at progressively higher energies and thus progressively less tightly bound.