Chemistry for Biologists: Gas exchange
Gas exchange occurs as a result of respiration, when carbon dioxide is excreted and oxygen taken up, and photosynthesis, when oxygen is excreted and carbon . This paper examines the importance of specific relationship investments in determining change is frequently advanced as an im- portant factor delivery ( generally a formula for determining prices for exchange in the presence of. Specific Heats: the relation between temperature change and heat definition of specific heat from Equation () to define the specific heat for a constant.
In a direct exchange, reciprocation is confined to the two actors. One social actor provides value to another one and the other reciprocates. There are three different types of reciprocity: Productive exchange means that both actors have to contribute for either one of them to benefit.
Both people incur benefits and costs simultaneously. Another common form of exchange is negotiated exchange which focuses on the negotiation of rules in order for both parties to reach a beneficial agreement. One major difference between the two exchanges is the level of risks associated with the exchange and the uncertainty these risks create ref. Negotiated exchange can consist of binding and non-binding negotiations. When comparing the levels of risk within these exchanges, reciprocal exchange has the highest level of risk which in result produces the most uncertainty.
Binding negotiated exchanges involve the least amount of risks which will result the individuals feeling low levels of uncertainty. Whereas non-binding negotiated exchanges and their level of risks and uncertainty fall in between the amount of risks associated with reciprocal and binding negotiated exchanges.
Critiques[ edit ] Katherine Miller outlines several major objections to or problems with the social exchange theory as developed from early seminal works  The theory reduces human interaction to a purely rational process that arises from economic theory.
The theory assumes that the ultimate goal of a relationship is intimacy when this might not always be the case. The theory places relationships in a linear structure, when some relationships might skip steps or go backwards in terms of intimacy.
Russell Cropanzano and Marie S. Mitchell discuss how one of the major issues within the social exchange theory is the lack of information within studies on the various exchange rules. Specifically, Rosenfeld looked at the limitations of interracial couples and the application of social exchange theory.
His analysis suggest that in modern society, there is less of a gap between interracial partners education level, socioeconomic status, and social class level which in turn, makes the previously understood application of social exchange mute.
Social exchange theory - Wikipedia
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message The most extensive application of social exchange has been in the area of interpersonal relationships. Self-Interest can encourage individuals to make decisions that will benefit themselves overall. Homans once summarized the theory by stating: Social behavior is an exchange of goods, material goods but also non-material ones, such as the symbols of approval or prestige.
Persons that give much to others try to get much from them, and persons that get much from others are under pressure to give much to them.
This process of influence tends to work out at equilibrium to a balance in the exchanges. For a person in an exchange, what he gives may be a cost to him, just as what he gets may be a reward, and his behavior changes less as the difference of the two, profit, tends to a maximum "Theories Used in Research". Anthropology[ edit ] Other applications that developed the idea of exchange include field of anthropology as evidenced in an article by Harumi Befu, which discusses cultural ideas and norms.
Within this field, self-interest, human sentiment and motivational process are not considered. This contrasts with psychological studies of exchange in which behaviors are studied ignoring the culture.
Social exchanges from the anthropological perspective have been analyzed using the gift-giving phenomena. The concept of reciprocity under this perspective states that individuals can directly reward his benefactor or another person in the social exchange process.
The basis of this theory is the distinction between restricted exchanges, which is only capable of connecting pairs of social groups, and generalize exchange, which integrates indefinite numbers of groups.
One feels as if there is not longer a need for a relationship or communication due to lack of rewards. Once this happens, the process of looking for new partners and resources occurs. This allows a continuation of networking. One may go through this process quite frequently. A View From the social exchange theory applied this theory to new media online dating. The study discovers the different factors involved when an individual decides to establish an online relationship.
The research found how social exchange processes changed during the year by measuring self disclosure. According to the study, the amount one person rewards another and the comparison levels for alternatives become the most important factors in determining liking and satisfaction. They use the concept of reciprocity to understand their findings.
The study concluded that meeting new people is often given as a major reason for participation in leisure activities, and meeting new people may be conceptualized as an exercise of reciprocity. In this case, reciprocity is perceived as a starting mechanism for new social relationships because people are willing to be helped by others, expecting that the help will eventually be returned. This study concludes that Bargaining helps to satisfy the more specific needs of the parties because greater risks are taken to obtain more information.
Interracial marriage[ edit ] Patterns of interracial marriage have been explained using social exchange theory. Kalmijn  suggests that ethnic status is offset against educational or financial resources. This process has been used to explain why there are more marriages between black men and white women than between white men and black women. This asymmetry in marriage patterns has been used to support the idea of a racial hierarchy.
Lewis,  however, explains that the same patterns of marriage can be accounted for in terms of simple facial attractiveness patterns of the different gender by race groupings.
Recent changes have seen an increase in black females marrying white men and a decrease in raw prevalence of interracial marriages when it comes to black females. There has also been a shift in the concentration of interracial marriage from mostly being between those with low education levels to those with higher levels of education.
It has contributed to the study of organization-stakeholder relationships and relationship marketing. The investment model proposed by Caryl Rusbult is a useful version of social exchange theory. According to this model, investments serve to stabilize relationships.
The greater the nontransferable investments a person has in a given relationship, the more stable the relationship is likely to be. The same investment concept is applied in relationship marketing.
Databases are the major instrument to build differentiated relationships between organizations and customers. Through the information process, companies identify the customer's own individual needs. From this perspective, a client becomes an investment. If a customer decides to choose another competitor, the investment will be lost. Exchange has been a central research thrust in business-to-business relational exchange. Michael Wittmann, and Robert E. Spekman firms evaluate economic and social outcomes from each transaction and compare them to what they feel they deserve.
Firms also look for additional benefits provided by other potential exchange partners. The initial transaction between companies is crucial to determine if their relationship will expand, remain the same or will dissolve.
Saks serves as an example to explain engagement of employees in organizations. This study uses one of the tenets of social exchange theory to explain that obligations are generated through a series of interactions between parties who are in a state of reciprocal interdependence. The research identified that when individuals receive economic and socioemotional resources from their organization, they feel obliged to respond in kind and repay the organization.
This is a description of engagement as a two-way relationship between the employer and employee. One way for individuals to repay their organization is through their level of engagement. The more engaged the employee are to their work, the greater amounts of cognitive, emotional, and physical resources they will devote to perform their job duties.
When the organization fails to provide economic or emotional resources, the employees are more likely to withdraw and disengage themselves from their roles. This study examines a model of clear leadership and relational building between head and teachers as antecedents, and organizational citizenship behavior as a consequence of teacher—school exchange.
This is shown through organizational identification which plays an important role in organizational citizenship behavior. An employees identification with their employer plays a significant role in supporting and promoting organized citizenship behavior, serving as a mediating mechanism with citizenship behaviors, perceived organizational justice, and organizational support based on both the social exchange and social identity theory.
Researchers have leveraged SET to explain self-disclosure in a cross-cultural context of French and British working professionals. They find that positive social influence to use an online community increases online community self-disclosure; reciprocity increases self-disclosure; online community trust increases self-disclosure; and privacy risk beliefs decrease self-disclosure. Meanwhile, a tendency toward collectivism increases self-disclosure. Similar research also leveraged SET to examine privacy concerns versus desire for interpersonal awareness in driving the use of self-disclosure technologies in the context of instant messaging.
Affect theory[ edit ] The actors in social exchange are normally viewed as unemotional beings who have information, cognitively process it, and make decisions concerning the pattern and nature of exchange with others. Formalized by Lawlerthe affect theory examines the structural conditions of exchange that produce emotions and feelings and then identifies how individuals attribute these emotions to different social units exchange partners, groups, or networks. Assumptions[ edit ] Most social exchange models have three basic assumptions in common: There are three or more individuals who have the opportunity to make exchanges with one another.
These actors are able to make decisions about whether to exchange, with whom to exchange, and under what terms to execute an exchange. Social exchange produces emotions that are positive to negative Emotions can be construed as reward or punishment i.
Individuals try to avoid negative emotions and to reproduce positive emotions in social exchange. Individuals will try to understand the source or cause of feelings produced by social exchange. In this way, emotions become attributed to the object that caused them.
Individuals interpret and exchange their feelings with respect to social relationships e. Positive emotions produced by exchange will increase solidarity in these relationships, while negative emotions will decrease solidarity. Theoretical propositions[ edit ] Affect theory of social exchange shows how the conditions of exchanges promote interpersonal and group relationships through emotions and affective processes. The theoretical arguments center on the following five claims: Emotions produced by exchange are involuntary, internal responses Individuals experience emotions general feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness depending on whether their exchange is successful.
These emotions are construed as a reward or punishment and individuals strive to repeat actions that reproduce positive emotions or avoid negative emotions. Individuals attempt to understand what in a social exchange situation produces emotions Individuals will use the exchange task to understand the source partners, groups, or networks of their emotions.
Individuals are more likely to attribute their emotions to their exchange partners or groups when the task can only be completed with one or more partners, when the task requires interdependent nonseparable contributions, and when there is a shared sense of responsibility for the success or failure of the exchange.
The mode of exchange determines the features of the exchange task and influences the attribution of the emotion produced The mode of exchange productive, negotiated, reciprocal, or generalized provides a description of the exchange task. The task features are defined by the degree of interdependence separability of tasks and shared responsibility between partners to complete the task. These features influence the strength of the emotion felt.
- Gas exchange
- Energy and heating
- Social exchange theory
Productive exchanges are interdependent and this high degree of nonseparability generates the strongest emotions. Reciprocal exchanges are separable which reduces the perceptions of shared responsibility. The exchange produces little emotional response, but individuals instead express emotions in response to the asymmetrical transaction.
Generalized exchanges do not occur directly, but interdependence is still high and coordination between partners is difficult. Because there is no direct emotional foundation, emotions produced are low.
Negotiated exchanges may produce conflicting emotions due to the mixed-motive nature of negotiations; even when transactions are successful, individuals may feel like they had the ability to do better, creating emotional ambivalence.
Overall, productive exchanges produce the strongest attributions of emotions, generalized indirect exchange the weakest, with negotiated and reciprocal exchanges in between. The attribution of emotions resulting from different exchange modes impact the solidarity felt with partners or groups The different types of exchange productive, reciprocal, and generalized also impact the solidarity or identification that an individual will feel with their exchange partners or group.
Affective attachment occurs when a social unit partner or group is the target of positive feelings from exchange; affective detachment alienation occurs when a social unit is the target of negative feelings from failure to exchange.
Similar to the attribution of emotion, productive exchange produces the strongest affective attachments, generalized exchange the weakest, and negotiated and reciprocal exchange are in between. When individuals have group attributions for positive emotions stemming from success, this eliminates any self-serving biases and enhances both pride in the self and gratitude to the partner.
However, group attributions for negative emotions stemming from failure do not eliminate self-serving biases, resulting in more anger toward the partner or group than shame in the self. In social exchange, social connections can be sources of stability and controllability. For example, if an exchange partner is perceived as a stable source of positive feelings, and the exchange partner has control in the acts that elicit those positive feelings, this will strengthen affective attachment.
Therefore, affect theory of social exchange proposes that stable and controllable sources of positive feelings i. Affect theory highlights the contributions of emotions in producing group properties. Successful interactions generate positive feelings for the involved individuals, which motivates them to interact with the same partners in the future.Quantum Numbers, Atomic Orbitals, and Electron Configurations
A person lifting books from the ground to a shelf does work against gravity. A battery pushing electrical current through a circuit does work against resistance. A child pushing a box along the floor does work against friction.
In thermodynamics, we are mainly interested in work done by expanding or compressing gases. Work done by a gas Gases can do work through expansion or compression against a constant external pressure. Work done by gases is also sometimes called pressure-volume or PV work for reasons that will hopefully become more clear in this section!
Let's consider gas contained in a piston. Pistons are actually used in many mechanical applications all around us, such as inside a gasoline engine. I usually imagine a piston looking very similar to a bicycle tire pump, but here's some more information about what real pistons look like in case you are interested!
Here is a picture of the insides of a gasoline engine that shows two pistons side-by-side: A picture of a petrol-engine that has been cut in half to show the cross section of 2 side-by-side pistons.
The piston on the left is arranged with a larger volume than the piston on the right. Schematic of a piston showing the movement of the piston head as the volume inside the piston changes.