Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development - Wikipedia
Lawrence Kohlberg's theory on the development of morality has been widely Kohlberg's theories can help business owners and managers understand how their she enters into the conventional stages of good interpersonal relationships. Kohlberg's theory of moral development offered a framework for how children form moral reasoning through a series of six key stages. the interpersonal relationships stage of moral development is focused on living up to. Kohlberg developed a six stage theory of moral development, and he benefit from a social order that fosters harmonious relationships among group members.
Because post-conventional individuals elevate their own moral evaluation of a situation over social conventions, their behavior, especially at stage six, can be confused with that of those at the pre-conventional level. Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community. Laws are regarded as social contracts rather than rigid edicts. Those that do not promote the general welfare should be changed when necessary to meet "the greatest good for the greatest number of people".
Democratic government is ostensibly based on stage five reasoning. In Stage six universal ethical principles drivenmoral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles.
Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. Legal rights are unnecessary, as social contracts are not essential for deontic moral action. Decisions are not reached hypothetically in a conditional way but rather categorically in an absolute way, as in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
In this way action is never a means but always an end in itself; the individual acts because it is right, and not because it avoids punishment, is in their best interest, expected, legal, or previously agreed upon.
Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that level. Sullivan helped support the accuracy of Kohlberg's first five stages through data analysis, but could not provide statistical evidence for the existence of Kohlberg's sixth stage. Further stages[ edit ] In his empirical studies of individuals throughout their life, Kohlberg observed that some had apparently undergone moral stage regression.
This could be resolved either by allowing for moral regression or by extending the theory. Kohlberg chose the latter, postulating the existence of sub-stages in which the emerging stage has not yet been fully integrated into the personality.
This stage is often mistaken for the moral relativism of stage two, as the individual views those interests of society that conflict with their own as being relatively and morally wrong.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development in Business
The stages of this model relate to the qualitative moral reasonings adopted by individuals, and so do not translate directly into praise or blame of any individual's actions or character. Arguing that his theory measures moral reasoning and not particular moral conclusions, Kohlberg insists that the form and structure of moral arguments is independent of the content of those arguments, a position he calls " formalism ".
Justice itself relies heavily upon the notion of sound reasoning based on principles. Despite being a justice-centered theory of morality, Kohlberg considered it to be compatible with plausible formulations of deontology  and eudaimonia.
Kohlberg's theory understands values as a critical component of the right. Whatever the right is, for Kohlberg, it must be universally valid across societies a position known as " moral universalism ": Moreover, morals are not natural features of the world; they are prescriptive. Nevertheless, moral judgments can be evaluated in logical terms of truth and falsity.
According to Kohlberg, someone progressing to a higher stage of moral reasoning cannot skip stages. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist, and the Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug, and this was much more than the Heinz could afford.
Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. He explained to the chemist that his wife was dying and asked if he could have the drug cheaper or pay the rest of the money later. The chemist refused, saying that he had discovered the drug and was going to make money from it.
Kohlberg asked a series of questions such as: Should Heinz have stolen the drug? Would it change anything if Heinz did not love his wife?
- Theory of Moral Development
- Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development
- Kohlberg's Theory Of Moral Development
What if the person dying was a stranger, would it make any difference? Should the police arrest the chemist for murder if the woman died? By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions, Kohlberg hoped to discover how moral reasoning changed as people grew older. The sample comprised 72 Chicago boys aged 10—16 years, 58 of whom were followed up at three-yearly intervals for 20 years Kohlberg, Each boy was given a 2-hour interview based on the ten dilemmas.
What Kohlberg was mainly interested in was not whether the boys judged the action right or wrong, but the reasons given for the decision. He found that these reasons tended to change as the children got older. He identified three distinct levels of moral reasoning each with two sub-stages.
People can only pass through these levels in the order listed. Each new stage replaces the reasoning typical of the earlier stage. Not everyone achieves all the stages. Instead, our moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules.
Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions. Obedience and Punishment Orientation.
If a person is punished, they must have done wrong. At this stage, children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints.
Level 2 - Conventional morality At the conventional level most adolescents and adultswe begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models.
Authority is internalized but not questioned, and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs. Therefore, answers relate to the approval of others.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development in Business | nickchinlund.info
Postconventional Kohlberg's highest stages of moral development are called postconventional and involve a recognition of the social contract and of universal ethical principles. A social contract is the idea that people have to give up certain rights in exchange for other rights or for protection. This is the recognition that free speech has restrictions, that certain laws are meant for the greater good and that ethical principles work in conjunction to help society's members live better lives.
In the business setting, the postconventional stage is likely to be seen in employees who have a long history with the company. These employees may have risen to management positions and are keen to secure a sense of rights and responsibilities among their subordinates.
Implementing Kohlberg's Stages While Kohlberg's stages of moral development are an interesting way to think about the growth of individuals, they do not readily correspond to all business situations.